1Department of Genetics and Plant breeding, Bangladesh
2Scientific Officer, Bangladesh
*Corresponding author: Hasan Khan M, Scientific Officer, Plant Breeder, Bangladesh
Submission: August 21, 2018;Published: January 22, 2019
A field experiment was conducted with 20 genotypes of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) at the experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, to study the variability among the genotypes for yield and yield contributing characters, estimate genetic parameters, association among the characters and their contribution to yield during April 2015 to September 2015. There was a great deal of significant variation for all the characters among the genotypes. Considering genetic parameters high genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) was observed for fruit weight, yield per plant and fruit length whereas low genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) was observed for nodes per vine, days to first male and female flowering. In all the cases, it was found that phenotypic co-efficient of variation was greater than genotypic co-efficient of variation which indicated a wide variability among the genotypes and offered better scope of selection. The accession G9 and G13 were the lowest vine length of 3.90m while G8 was the maximum vine length for 4.83. The minimum and maximum branches per vine were required by the genotypes G3 and G4, respectively. The maximum nodes per vine (87.33) were recorded by the genotype G9 and the lowest nodes per vine (78.00) were recorded by G19. The earliest male flowering was recorded in G17 and G2 genotype showed the late flowering. The maximum fruit length was recorded in the genotype G7 and minimum fruit length in the genotype G1.
The maximum fruit diameter was recorded in the genotype G1 and the minimum fruit diameter in the genotype G4. The minimum fruit weight was recorded by the accession G4 and accession G16 showed the maximum fruit weight. The line G2 showed the minimum fruits per plant and the maximum fruits per plant were recorded in the accession G9. The highest fruit yield per plant was recorded by the accession G19 while accession G14 showed the lowest fruit yield per plant. High heritability (>60%) was observed for the characters like vine length, branches per vine, nodes per vine, fruit length, fruit weight, fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant. The high heritability coupled with high genetic advance in percent of mean observed in branches per vine, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant suggested that effective selection may be done for these characters. Fruit yield per plant showed the highest positive direct effect (0.88) with branches per plant. Firstly, genotypes G19, G9, G12 and G4 could be included in the furthest study in view of fruit yield for releasing as bitter gourd verities. Secondly the maximum variability found for branches per vine, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. So, selection based on these characters could be effective for the improvement of bitter gourd yield.
Keywords:Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia); Variability; Yield; PCV; GCV; Heritability; Genetic advance