1Department of Hematology,UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Nigeria
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Nigeria
3Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria, Nigeria
4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, West Virginia School of Medicine, USA
*Corresponding author: Osaro Erhabor, Department of Haematology UsmanuDanfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria
Submission: April 13, 2018;Published: July19, 2018
ISSN: 2577-2007Volume3 Issue5
Pregnancy is a state of relative arginine deficiency imposed by the increased formation of nitric oxide to support the adaptive vasodilatation of pregnancy. This case control study involved a total of 74 pregnant (subjects) and 50 non-pregnant women (controls). The subjects were aged 19 years to 40 years with mean age of 27.6±5.0 years. The mean values of L-arginine level among 74 pregnant subjects was (173±63.7μmol/L) compared to (137.9±89.5μmol/L) among 50 non-pregnant control group is (p=0.271). The mean values of Nitric Oxide level among the pregnant subjects (334±80.6μmol/L) was significantly higher that that among the non-pregnant controls (280.5±130μmol/L) (p=0.002). The mean values of L-arginine and nitric oxide were compared among the subjects based on trimester. There was no significance difference in the L-arginine and nitric oxide levels (175±63.9) and (303.5±118) among pregnant women within their first trimester and second trimester (185.5±61) and (344±74) (p=0.337 and 0.750) respectively. There was no significance difference in the mean values of L-arginine and nitric Oxide among pregnant women in the second (185.5±61) and (344±74) and third trimester of pregnancy (161±65.5) and (328±83) (p=0.115 and 0.409) respectively.
Similarly, there was no significance difference in the mean values of L- arginine and nitric Oxide among pregnant women in the first (175±63.9) and (303.5±118) and third semester (161±65.5) and (328±83) (p=0.704 and 0.407). The mean value of L-arginine and nitric oxide was compared based on ethnicity of the subjects. L-arginine and nitric oxide levels among Hausa/Fulani ethnic group is (167.8±63) and (330.7±75) respectively. The mean value of L-arginine and nitric oxide level among Yoruba ethnic group is (168.5.5±76) and (411±57) respectively. While the mean values of L-arginine and nitric oxide among Igbo ethnic group is (217±57) and (237.8±128) respectively. There were no significant differences in the L-arginine levels among subjects based on ethnicity (p>0.05). The nitric oxide level was significantly higher among Hausa/Fulani (330.7±75) compared to the Igbo ethnic group (237.8±124) (p=0.046). The mean values of L-arginine and nitric oxide was compared based on parity. The mean values of L-arginine and nitric oxide among pregnant women who are carrying their first pregnancy is (148±55.7) and (348.8±75.5) respectively. The mean values of L-arginine and nitric oxide among para 1,2,3,4, and >4 pregnant women were; (190.9±72.9) and (318.7±56), (151±56.8) and (341.6±81.7), (201±48) and (306±91.8), (146±67) and (346±57.8) and (181±70) and (348±98.8) respectively.
There was a statistically significant difference in the mean L-arginine levels between para 2 (151±56.8) and 3 women (201±48) (p=0.029). Similarly, the mean L-arginine levels was significantly higher among para 3 (201±48) compared to para 0 pregnant women (148±55.7) (p=0.010). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean L-arginine and nitric oxide based on the on the occupation of husband and the level of educational attainment of the subjects (p>0.05). In conclusion, finding from this study confirmed that the level of L-arginine and nitric oxide is higher among pregnant subjects compared to non-pregnant controls. Gestational age (trimester), ethnicity, parity, and socio-economic status was also found to have effect on the level of L-arginine and nitric oxide. We recommend that further research need to be conducted involving a larger population of pregnant women with different gestational age, parity, ethnicity and socio-economic status.We also recommend that pregnant women found to have low level of L-arginine and nitric oxide should be given L-arginine supplements as a prophylaxis. We recommend that public enlightenment programme should be implemented to enlighten pregnant women on how to maintain the normal level of L-arginine and nitric oxide through taking a balance diet and food that serve as a source of L-arginine. We also recommend that pregnant women should be offered a routine L-arginine and nitric oxide test to monitor their level of L-arginine and nitric oxide.
Keywords: L-Arginine; Nitric oxide; Pregnant women; Sokoto; Nigeria