Lina M Alnaddaf*, Hala H Ahmad, Rawan H Hamoud, Ali H Hassan and Reem H Sulieman
Field crops, College of Agriculture, Albaath University, Homs, Syria
*Corresponding author:Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Department of field crops, College of Agriculture, Albaath University, Homs, Syria
Submission: July 25, 2023;Published: September 13, 2023
ISSN 2637-7659Volume13 Issue 2
The Syrian Arab Republic is characterized by great geographic, climatic and environmental differences. It has high mountains, plateaus and plains, as well as valleys and wetlands. The study was conducted in the villages of the Sheikh Badr region of Tartous Governorate, which is 35km away from the center of the governorate, during the period between February 2023 and May 2023. The research centered on the villages of bromana almsheikh (Alsawrani-Mujabar-Jubat Mujabar-Alzaefaraniu) with the aim of listing the most common wild plants in the region. The results showed that 27 plant species belonging to 16 plant families were identified, of which 20 are common and 5 are rare. In addition to the existence of two species: Triticum monococcum- Origanum syriacum threatened with extinction. The results indicated that the Sheikh Badr region was characterized by an important plant biodiversity, enriched with multiple plant species with various benefits (medical, pastoral, nutritional). Also, the presence of some plant species distinguishes this region only, such as Micromeria.
Keywords:Biodiversity; Plant; Region; Syria; Wild species
Food security is closely related to biodiversity, as genetic diversity, specific richness, diversity of ecosystems, and reliance on local genetic resources increase environmental resilience and tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses, thus establishing more stable agricultural and environmental systems . Syria is one of the countries rich in biodiversity and distinguished by it, due to the variation in climate and topography. It extends from the coast, which is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, where marine life lives in the Mediterranean basin, to the coastal and inland mountains, to the interior regions, including plains, mountains, and the desert, each with its own fauna and flora. The Syrian natural flora includes approximately 3,300 species belonging to 900 genera and 130 species. Therefore, the Syrian flora is one of the floras that are rich in various plant species .
Climate change, biotic and abiotic stresses, human activities, fires and wars have led to the disappearance of some plant species from their natural habitats. Wild relatives, with their genetic background, contribute to expanding the genetic base of different cultivars, and thus there are great possibilities for developing new cultivars with a genetic background more suitable for different agricultural systems using the ancestral gene pool . Wild species are described as the critical resources required to maintain the global food supply . Thus, one of the worthwhile strategies to increase crop productivity and stability and achieve food security for the expected population increase in 2050 that can be applied in a wide range of environments is the introduction of genes and alleles from wild relatives into domestic or modern cultivars . In addition, local knowledge, culture, and customs inherited from ancestors hundreds of years ago contribute to the continuity of use and permanent utilization of genetic resources to show the quality and importance of these resources and the nutritional values they provide to local communities, given the importance of this biological diversity at the environmental and economic levels . Therefore, the research aims to identify wild plant species and enhance knowledge of plant biodiversity in the region, which has economic, nutritional and medical importance.
Study location and climate
The study was carried out in the villages of the Sheikh Badr region of Tartous Governorate, which is 35km away from the center of the province. The area is concentrated in the northeast to maintain an altitude of (500-750m) and follows the first stabilization zone, as the annual rainfall rate is (1425.3mm). The temperature in summer is between (25-38) °c and in winter between (0-25) °c.
Collecting plant samples
Periodic tours were carried out to monitor existing plants between February and May 2023 to determine the presence and spread of wild plant species, collect plant samples, record all necessary information, and then dry and preserve them.
Classification of wild plant species recorded in the study area
The genera and species of wild plants spread in the study area were identified based on the morphology, taxonomic keys, flora and atlases available [6,7].
The botanical description of the plant species available in the study area was studied according to Table 1, and 27 plant species belonging to 16 plant families were identified, of which 20 are common and 5 are rare Arum palaestinum- Crocus sativus- Paretaria judaica- Santolina chamaecyparissus- Capparis spinosa. In addition, the existence of two species: Triticum monococcum- Origanum syriacum threatened with extinction. The results indicated that the Sheikh Badr region was characterized by an important plant biodiversity, enriched with multiple plant species with various benefits (medical, pastoral, nutritional). Also, the existence of some plant species considered characteristic to this region only, such as Micromeria. This region was also characterized by plants considered gene banks such as (wild wheat, barley and oats).
Table 1:Families and species present in study region.
The biodiversity in the region was very important which can be used to improve field groups. The study recommended that environmental education equip learners to face environmental challenges. Also, Keep and restore biodiversity and natural resources via sustainable management. In addition, employ the medicinal importance of available plants in the health field.
© 2023 Lina M Alnaddaf. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.