Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, India
*Corresponding author: Asit Kumar Chakraborty, Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102, West Bengal, India
Submission: May 24, 2018; Published: July 16, 2018
ISSN: 2578-0190 Volume2 Issue1
High rate infections and deaths due to multidrug-resistant pathogens have created a horror worldwide. Because MDR bacteria are present in river, sea and air as well as in all household matters, such infections are ubiquitous. Most dangerous step occurred when R-plasmids and integrons (2-9kb) were combined with F’-conjugative plasmid (50-500kb) creating MDR conjugative plasmids that highly donated the mdr genes into household pathogens in the environment. Now 40% of household Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus like Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria are ampicillin resistant and also to some extent tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and neomycin resistant.