Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, India
*Corresponding author: Vinod Nikhra, Senior Chief Medical Officer and Consultant, Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, New Delhi, India
Submission: July 23, 2018; Published: September 10, 2018
ISSN: 2576-8816Volume6 Issue4
Human lifespan and longevity: The aging is a universal phenomenon. With time, all life-forms age. In essence, the aging is a disorder of accumulated recurrent and chronic injury at cellular and molecular levels. It is influenced by the developmental damage load, harmful effects of early life situations, and adverse effects of chronic disease processes. The healthcare and healthy lifestyle help in slowing the aging process. The longer life and aging slowly are mutually related. There is nothing inherent in human constitution that limits the lifespan. At the biological level, evolution has prepared us for longevity, not the brevity.
Metabolic and genetic alterations: The metabolic dysfunction is linked to accelerated aging through generating free radicals that damage DNA and proteins. The aging may mean decay as the repairing process falters and there is a failure to restore and rejuvenate body tissues. The life span has also been linked to metabolic rate and metabolic stability. The genetic mutations in mitochondria trigger changes leading to apoptosis and accelerate the aging process. There have been discovered a variety of longevity mutations, which have been shown to extend life. Further, the genetic manipulations work through a common pathway across many species endorsing that there is an evolutionary genetic program that controls aging.
Caloric restriction for slowing aging: The state of nutrition has a bearing on aging and the life span. The CR protects against disease, slows aging and prolongs life. With CR regimen, there are less free radical production, less mitochondrial mutations and less programmed cell deaths. An optimal CR and CRAN reduce the incidence of virtually all diseases of aging such as cancer, CVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, auto-immune disorders, cognitive decline and diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, extend maximum and average life spans and improve disease resistance. Ingestion of fewer calories also alter favourably the fat deposition, adiposity and hormonal imbalance.
The cryonics and cryopreservation: Cryonics are the practice of freezing a body immediately after clinical death with the aim of enabling eventual revival in the remote future. The cryopreservation which is based on a more sophisticated understanding of death called ‘information-theoretic death’, offers a bridge to the life in future. The cryonics corporations have shifted emphasis from whole body to ‘neuro-preservation’ with the assumption that the rest of the body could be regrown and reconstructed in future. The main goal now is to preserve the information contained in the structure of the brain, on which memory and personal identity depends. The available scientific evidence suggests that the mechanical structure of the brain called connectome, is wholly responsible for personal identity and memories.
Conclusion: Futuristic visions of extreme survival-The Life extension program (LEP) aims to increase the maximum lifespan beyond the current maximum for humans. It can be visualised to go through three steps - taking advantage of the existing knowledge for slowing aging like CR and CRAN; utilizing the advances in genetics and biotechnology; and using the future nanotechnology and artificial intelligence revolution to repair the mutations and other defects due to aging at molecular and cellular levels. The futuristic goal is, thus, to achieve rejuvenation and state of non-aging, and to realize the eternal dream of exponential healthy life extension. The longer life is not separate from aging slowly, rather they are mutually related. With the scientific progress the futuristic visions of achieving significant longevity, if not immortality, seems quite possible. The eternal dream is on the verge of becoming a reality.
Abbreviations: CR: Caloric Restriction; CRAN: Caloric Restriction with Adequate Nutrition; CVD: Cardio-Vascular Disease; HBP: Human Brain Project; IGF: Insulin like Growth Factor; LEP: Life Extension Program; Mt-DNA: Mitochondrial-DNA; PNC-1: Pyrazinamide’s and NiCotinamidase-1, QOL: Quality of Life; ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species; T2DM: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; SNP: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; STAC: Sirtuin Activating Compounds
Keywords: Aging; Metabolic dysfunction; ROS; Longevity; Life extension; Cryonics; Human brain project; Caloric restriction; Human brain project; SIRT