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Research & Development in Material Science

Challenges in Postprocessing of Hybrid Manufacturing of Magnet Polymer Composites to Enhance the Energy Product of NdFeB Bonded Magnets

  • Open or CloseTej Nath Lamichhane1*, Kaustubh Mungale2,3,4, Haobo Wang1,5, Kinjal Gandha6, Xubo Liu6, Ikenna C Nlebedim6, Zhang Gai7, Uday Kumar Vaidya2,3,4 and M Parans Paranthaman1**

    1Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA

    2Tickle College of Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Middle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

    3Manufacturing Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2350 Cherahala Blvd, Knoxville, TN 37932, USA

    4Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation, 2360 Cherahala Blvd, Knoxville, TN 37932, USA

    5The Bredesen Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

    6Critical Materials Institute, Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011, USA

    7Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA

    *Corresponding author: Tej Nath Lamichhane and M Parans Paranthaman, Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA Emails:

Submission: November 17, 2021;Published: November 24, 2021

DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2021.16.000882

ISSN : 2576-8840
Volume16 Issue2


Bonded permanent magnets need to process magnetic filler particles and binder together which is a form of hybrid or composite manufacturing that needs to simultaneously process multimaterials. Polymer bonding of the permanent magnets decreases the energy product of the bonded magnets which varies with square of loading fraction of magnetic materials. However, due to high viscosity of bonding polymer prohibits loading higher than 80 volume % of magnetic materials in most efficient loading process such as compression molding. To further increase the loading of magnetic fraction in the bonded permanent magnets, it is expected to be beneficial to introduce a fraction of nonreacting thermally sacrificial polymer along with permanent bonding polymer in the least permissible of about 20 volume % of the polymer. This process of first adding the sacrificial polymer for higher processability for composites and later removing it via post processing such as heat treatment provides a simple example of inclusion of both the additive and the subtractive stages of hybrid manufacturing. These hybrid composite magnets can be heat treated to remove the sacrificial polymer to further increase the density and energy product which might require to implement hot isostatic pressing for compaction. Although the identification of such ideal polymer requires an extensive polymer chemistry research, we have compression molded several permanent bonding polymers such as nylon, polycarbonate (PC) and polyphenyl sulfide (PPS) and potential sacrificial polymer such as polyoxymethylene (POM), polystyrene (PS), and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and heat treated to remove the sacrificial polymers. It is discovered that oxygen free low temperature pyrolizable polymers could be the potential candidates for increasing the magnet particles loading for achieving high energy products.

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