Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Technology, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Corresponding author:Amra Bratovcic,Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Technology, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Submission: August 10, 2019;Published: August 25, 2020
ISSN : 2576-8840Volume14 Issue1
As populations grow, global energy consumption in the next 30 years is predicted to rise by nearly 50%. Nowadays and many years before, the most energy worldwide is provided by fossil fuel which leads to severe pollution and contributes to the greenhouse effect. Hydrogen is the most ideal alternative clean energy, but currently, there is no significant hydrogen production from renewable sources. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of new photocatalysts which will allow a water splitting for hydrogen production. The photocatalytic water splitting using TiO2 offers a promising approach for clean, low-cost, and environmentally friendly production of hydrogen as a sustainable fuel. This paper reviews some recently used methods of synthesis such as hydrothermal, rapid breakdown anodization method, impregnation method, and sol-gel synthesis for the preparation of modified TiO2 materials. These methods of synthesis provide the production of ultra-thin mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets, nanorods, and nanotubes as well as heterojunction structures. Some investigations show that introduction of Ti3+ atomic defects is beneficial for the photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation. Some progress has been achieved by hetero coupling the two or more semiconductors. There is experimental evidence that in the presence of alcohol as a sacrificial agent, H2 production rates decreased from a higher number of hydroxyl groups i.e. in order 3>2>1. The H2 generation is also larger when TiO2 is modified with the addition of small quantity of metal nanoparticles such as Pt, Pd, and Ni. One study has shown that the samples sensitised with Pt nanoparticles were superior to Pd and Ni modified TiO2, the other has shown that the co-catalyst activity followed the order Pd>Pt≈Au.
Keywords: Photocatalysis; Water splitting; Hydrogen production; Modified TiO2; Nanoparticles
Abbreviations: °C: Degrees Celsius; NPs : Nanoparticles; NTs: Nanotubes; EC: European Commission; IRENA: International Renewable Energy Agency; IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; EIA: Energy Information Administration; CB: Conduction Band; VB: Valance Band; CBE: Conduction Band Energy; Eg: Band Gap Energy; ΔG: Gibbs Free EnergyGet access to the full text of this article