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Research & Development in Material Science

Substitutional Studies of Powdered Palm Kernel Shell (PPKS) for Carbon Black, Kaolin and Calcium Carbonate as Fillers in Natural Rubber Compounding

Submission: May 18, 2020;Published: May 27, 2020

DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.13.000816

ISSN : 2576-8840
Volume13 Issue4


The possibility of Substituting Powdered Palm Kernel Shell (PPKS) for conventional fillers such as carbon black (CBN330), Kaolin (KA) and Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) in natural rubber compounding was investigated. 37 samples of natural rubber mixes were compounded, using 0-60pphr loading levels of the fillers. A zero-filler compounded sample was used as control. The rheological and cure properties of the cured samples and the physico-chemical properties of the filler samples were tested using the appropriate test equipment and ASTM methods of analysis. The physico-mechanical properties of the filled vulcanizates were also determined using the appropriate test machines. The % equilibrium swelling properties of the vulcanizates were also compared. The results obtained reveal that PPKS exhibited improved compounding and cure characteristics than CBN330, Kaolin and CaCO3, and also has better hardness, but less tensile strength than CBN330. PPKS had better tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, elongation at break (EB), abrasion resistance and hardness than Kaolin and CaCO3 filled vulcanizates. However PPKS showed less % of equilibrium swelling than CBN330, Kaolin and CaCO3. Conclusively, PPKS can be used as semi-reinforcing filler and a substitute for CBN330 where EB and hardness are desired. Therefore PPKS can be completely substituted for Kaolin and CaCO3 in Natural rubber vulcanized products.

Keywords: Substitution; Fillers; Powdered palm kernel shell; Carbon black; Physico-chemical; Physico-chanical

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