Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
*Corresponding author: Sondus Ahmad Alkadri, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Submission: February 24, 2018; Published: May 04, 2018
Introduction: Bone-anchored maxillary expanders have been invented to provide extreme pure skeletal expansion. There are studies that address the clinical effectiveness and outcomes of bone-borne maxillary expansion; mostly on adults or with surgical assistance.
Objective: To review publications studied the effectiveness of Bone-Borne Maxillary Expander (BBME) compared with tooth-borne maxillary expander (TBME) in mixed dentition subjects.
Search strategy Literature review dated from 2006 to June 2016 on PubMed and B-on databases was conducted. Relevant data were extracted, grouped and analyzed concerning: total amount of expansion, skeletal vs. dental expansion, side effects, and long-term stability of TBME and BBME. 16 articles were selected: 11 studies addressed TBME, one study was a comparison between TBME and BBME, and 4 studies addressed BBME.
Discussion: Amounts of skeletal expansion and dental expansion varied between TBME and BBME; it also varied within TBME itself in different studies. Inter-coronal widths of maxillary molars in TBME were significantly greater than their counterparts in BBME. Generally, TBME showed a reduction in alveolar bone thickness on the buccal aspect of the anchorage teeth. Buccal tipping in TBME studies was small or high up to 19 degrees, in BBME group it was clinically trivial.
Conclusion: Current available reviewed studies led to inconsistent conclusions regarding the superiority of BBME over TBME in mixed dentition patients. They were mostly done on subjects above 12 years old. Although theoretically and logically this claim may seem valid, no evidence-based conclusion could be made. Future investigations on mixed dentition patients are highly recommended.
Keywords: Endodontics; Sinus tract; Epidemiology; Incidence; Chronic infection
Abbreviations INAW: Inter-Incisor Apex Width; INCW: Inter-Incisor Crown Width; IMCW: Inter-Molar Crown Width; IMAW: Inter-Molar Apex Width; BT: Buccal Tipping; RMA: Right Molar Angulation; LMA: Left Molar Angulation; BBPT: Buccal Bone Plate Thickness; BBPT: Palatal Bone Plate Thickness; EBLIA: External Buccopalatal Inclination Angle; IM: Inter-Molar; IP: Inter-Premolar; IC: Inter-Canine; #3s: Permanent Canines; #4s: First Premolars; #5s: Second Premolars; #6s: First Molars, #16: Right First Permanent Molar; #26: Left First Permanent Molar; #14: Right First Premolar; #24: Left First Premolar; #Cs: Deciduous Canines; #Ds: First Deciduous Molars; #Es: Second Deciduous Molars; NI: Indicated Mentioned; Post. R: Posterior Region; Ant. R: Anterior Region; Mid: Middle Region; Post-6ms: Post 6 Months; Hye: Hyrax Expander; Hae: Haas Expander; G: Group; Ys: Years; Ms: Months; Pts: Patients; M: Male; F: Female; TBME: Tooth-Borne Maxillary Expander; BBME: Bone-Borne Maxillary Expansion; Mm: Millimeter