Susheelkumar V Ronad1*, Chetan S Patali2, Shridhar H Gondbal3, Kirankumar TC4, Pankaja TC5, Rajendra Badesgol6, Veeresh Nandgaon7and Timmapur TM8
1Department of Psychiatric Nursing DIMHANS Dharwad, India
2Principal Dhanush Institute Of Nursing Sciences, India
3Staff Nurse, Indira Gandhi Children's Hospital, India
4Department of Management Studies, Karnataka Arts College, India
5RL Law College, India
6Department of Police, India
7KLE Institute of Nursing Sciences Belgaum, India
8Psychiatric Social Worker, Dimhans Dharwad, India
*Corresponding author: Susheelkumar V Ronad, Department of Psychiatric Nursing DIMHANS Dharwad, India
Submission: February 07, 2018; Published: February 28, 2018
ISSN: 2576-8816Volume4 Issue2
As the 10th leading cause of death in the United States and the second leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34, suicide is a serious public health problem. Each year, more than 40,000 people die by suicide (one every 15 minutes) and 1 million people attempt suicide, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Men are nearly four times more likely than women to take their lives. Yet, suicide can be preventable. Knowing the risk factors and recognizing the warning signs for suicide can help reduce the suicide rate.
2. Risk Factors, Warning Signs and Protective Factors
A. Suicide is linked to mental disorders, particularly depression and alcohol use disorders, and the strongest risk factor for suicide is a previous suicide attempt.
B. The Suicide Prevention Resource Center defines risk and protective factors and warning signs:
C. Risk factors are characteristics that make it more likely that an individual will consider, attempt or die by suicide.
D. Protective factors are characteristics that make it less likely that individuals will consider, attempt or die by suicide.
Warning Signs of Suicide as follows
A. Often talking or writing about death, dying, or suicide
B. Making comments about being hopeless, helpless or worthless
C. Expressions of having no reason for living; no sense of purpose in life; saying things like "It would be better if I wasn't here" or "I want out"
D. Increased alcohol and/or drug misuse
E. Withdrawal from friends, family and community
F. Reckless behavior or more risky activities, seemingly without thinking
G. Dramatic mood changes
H. Talking about feeling trapped or being a burden to others
In some cases, an immediate stressor or sudden catastrophic event, failure or humiliation like a relationship break-up, legal problems, financial problems (e.g., home foreclosure or job loss) can leave people feeling desperate, unable to see a way out, and become a "tipping point" toward suicide.
If someone indicates they are considering suicide, listen and take their concerns seriously. Don't be afraid to ask questions about their plans. Let them know you care, and they are not alone. Encourage them to seek help immediately from a knowledgeable professional. Don't leave them alone.
If you need help, please call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or go to www. suicidepreventionlifeline.org and Click to Chat
A. Certain events and circumstances may increase risk.
B. Previous suicide attempt(s)
C. A history of suicide in the family?
D. Substance misuse
E. Mood disorders (depression, bipolar disorder)
F. Access to lethal means (e.g., keeping firearms in the home)
G. Losses and other events (for example, the breakup of a relationship or a death, academic failures, legal difficulties, financial difficulties, bullying)
H. History of trauma or abuse
I. Chronic physical illness, including chronic pain J. Exposure to the suicidal behavior of others
Effective mental health care; easy access to a variety of clinical interventions
Strong connections to individuals, family, community and social institutions
Problem-solving and conflict resolution skills
Contacts with providers (e.g., follow-up phone call from health care professional)
As with mental illness, one of the biggest barriers to preventing suicide is stigma, which prevents many people from seeking help.
A. American Association of Suicidology
B. Veteran's Administration Suicide Prevention
C. American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP)
D. International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP)
E. 2015 World Suicide Prevention Day fact sheet
F. WHO - Suicide Prevention
G. World Suicide Report: Preventing Suicide, A Global Imperative
H. Suicide Prevention Resource Center
© 2018 Susheelkumar V Ronad, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.