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Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences

Socio-Demographic & Clinical Profile of Patients with Substance Use Disorders Seeking Treatment. A Hospital Based Study

Submission: April 29, 2019;Published: May 15, 2019

DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.07.000672

ISSN: 2576-8816
Volume7 Issue4


Substance abuse is a complex and multidimensional problem. The problem is not merely that of an individual and a drug or a community, but of the interaction between the triad. The geographical location of Jammu and Kashmir makes transit of drugs possible across the state. Present prevailing disturbed conditions have worsened drug abuse scenario besides phenomenal increase in other psychiatric disorders in Kashmir. Drug addiction, a major problem worldwide, is associated with a high risk of relapse. Substance use can influence the support extended by the family members. This may be due to financial difficulties posed by the drug use, drug use leading to neglect of family responsibilities, involvement of the drug abuser in illegal activities, aggressive behaviour that may occur under the influence of certain drugs or several other reasons.

Aims and Objectives: To study the demographic profile of patients with substance use disorders seeking treatment & the clinical profile of patients with substance use disorders seeking treatment.

Material and Methods: Study was undertaken on the patients with substance use disorders attending OPD of Government Psychiatric Disease Hospital, Government Medical College Srinagar Kashmir, which is a teaching hospital for both under and postgraduate students. First 300 consecutive patients attending psychiatric OPD with substance use disorders as per DSM-IV-TR criteria diagnosed by the consultant psychiatrist, were taken for the study. A detailed history of sociodemographic and clinical profile was taken as per the proforma. In case of any doubt about the nature of the drug abused the urine, screening was done. All other routine investigations like CBC, LFT including gamma GT, KFT, serum electrolytes and blood sugar were also done. In our study majority of the patients were males, unmarried, with the mean age at time of presentation was 28.99 years, resident of urban and semi urban areas, Muslims, came from nuclear family, belonging to the middle-class family. The most common reason for seeking treatment for substance use disorder was social problems, with the mean age of onset of substance use was 19.66 years. A significant number of patients 32.34% (N=97) were using more than one substance. Most common route of administration used by the patients in our study was oral 57.91%. Among the psychiatric comorbidity, patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were 32.06 %(N=42), Bipolar Affective Disorder (BPAD) were 31.29 %(N=41), anxiety and adjustment disorders were 27.48% (N=39). Out of the 300 patients only 13% (N=39) of the patients had previous history of hospitalization or treatment for substance abuse. CONCLUSION: Most of the treatment seekers who attended the hospital for the substance use disorders were males in adult age group and most of them started using substance in adolescence. Bulk of the treatment seekers in our study was formed by businessmen, employees, students; most of which belonging to the nuclear family. Maximum were having good social support and referred by the family. Predominant substances used were opioids derivatives, cannabis, benzodiazepines and alcohol with significant number of polysubstance abusers using mostly opioid and benzodiazepine combination. So opioid derivative use is showing increasing trend in the treatment seekers in the valley. About forty three percent of the substance use disorders were having comorbid psychiatric disorder and more than one third having suicidal ideation although suicidal attempts were very less. Many of the patients were having high risk behaviour, 9.34% percent were the parental drug users and 2.67% shared the needles and 19% of the patients had multiple sexual partners, 6.67% had sex with commercial sex worker. Both of these high-risk behaviours form the fertile ground for the spread of deadly disease AIDS and other life-threatening diseases.

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