Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Canada
*Corresponding author: Louis ZG Touyz, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal PQ, Canada
Submission: April 25, 2018; Published: June 08, 2018
ISSN: 2576-8816Volume5 Issue3
Introduction:Formation of natural biopolymers impacts all levels of biology. Mainly found in water biology, marine and aquatic ecosystems are fundamental into the understanding of water management. From antibiotics and microbes, to sub-aquatic slimes in Nature, polymers influence most biological ecosystems affecting Mankind.
Aim:This paper appraises ubiquitous biofilms at macro-and microscopic levels all of which have a marked effect on all living things in most biospheres.
Discussion:The importance, formation, function and management of exo-polymer matrices are deconstructed and the powerful functional outcomes of growing natural, and abuse of synthetic polymers, are discussed. Natural polymers and synthetic manufactured polymers are different, in that natural polymers are continuously broken down biologically but most synthetic polymers do not decompose and fracture down to micro-plastic particles. Natural polymers may affect microbial metabolism and water pollution, but synthetic plastics at the macro-and micro-levels cause ongoing toxic water pollution.
Conclusion:Polymers in nature play a vital role in biology; synthetic polymers are toxic to the oceanic food chain. Improved understanding of their formation, and life cycles may mollify and negate unwanted destructive side-effects impacting Mankind. Synthetic plastic polymers present a danger to global fauna.
Keywords:Antibiotics; Biofilms; Biospheres; Ecology; Ecosystems; Exo-polymers; Enzymes; Glucans; Extra-cellular-polymers; Matrices; Microbes; Micro-plastics; Plastics; Poly-saccharides; Transferase
Abbreviationsc:BP: Biological Polymers; CE: Climax Ecosystem; CF: Combination Filter; ECP: Extra-Cellular+Polysaccharide; Exo-P: Exo-Polymer; EPA: Environment Protection Agency of USA; EPS: Extracellular Polysaccharide; GT: Glucosyl-Transferase; FT: Fructosyl Transferase; GT: Galactosyl Transferase; MP: Microplastics; PE: Primary/Pilot Ecosystem; SSF: Slow Sand Filter; RSF: Rapid Sand Filter; SPP: Synthetic Plastic Polymers; NBP: Natural Biological Polymer; MP: Micro-Plastics