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Progress in Petrochemical Science

Review, Biodiesel Production from Basic to Advance Level Through Using Different Mechanism, Techniques, Approaches and How to Make It Commercialized

  • Open or CloseInam Ullah Khan*

    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, China

    *Corresponding author:Inam Ullah Khan, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferro metallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, China

Submission: December 19, 2023; Published: January 17, 2024

DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2024.06.000627

ISSN 2637-8035
Volume6 Issue1


Uncritical withdrawal and usage of mineral oil has reduced fossil fuel assets, causing fuel shortages and ecological deprivation. Due to fossil fuels’ environmental impact, biodiesel manufacturing has garnered interest as an alternative to Petro diesel. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Renewable energy seems like a good option for world energy needs, including Pakistan. Thus, a state-available feedstock-based alternative fuel must be found. Although vegetable oil can be used in diesel locomotives, using it for biodiesel production has become a major concern because it competes with food nutrition, making it difficult to defend. Thus, the search for inedible oil-yielding plant sources for biofuels has been fascinating and beneficial to the environment and food safety. Trans esterifying non-edible oil with methanol and base or strong acid catalysts make Biodiesel. Several parameters affect transesterification reaction. An optimum transesterification reaction depends on oil fatty acid composition and free fatty acid concentration. Other factors include reaction temperature, alcohol-to-vegetable oil ratio, catalyst, mixing intensity and reactant purity. The kinematic viscosity, acid value, density, water content, flash point, pour point, cloud point and cold filter plugging point of biodiesel will be determined using ASTM standards (D-6751) and EN (14214) with acceptable agreement. To determine biodiesel composition and structure, FT-IR, NMR (1H & 13C), and GC-MS will be used. ICP-OES will calculate Na, K, Ca and Mg compositions. Elemental Analyzer (EA) investigations would analyze C, H, O and N ratios. Future feedstock research should reveal production costs, technological transformation opportunities for farmers, and worldwide industrial applications. Biodiesel fuel characteristics, transesterification and the most essential variables affecting the reaction are covered in this article.

Keywords:Non-edible seeds; Transesterification; Base catalysis; Environmentally friendly; Alternate energy; Biodiesel

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