Crimson Publishers Publish With Us Reprints e-Books Video articles

Full Text

Psychology and Psychotherapy: Research Studys/strong>

Comparison of Job Satisfaction and Stress Level in Post Graduate Doctors of Local Hospitals of Islamabad

Asima Mehboob Khan* and Rizwan Taj

Department of Psychiatry, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Asima Mehboob Khan, Associate Clinical Psychologist, Department of Psychiatry, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan

Submission: May 09, 2018;Published: September 17, 2018

DOI: 10.31031/PPRS.2018.01.000520

ISSN 2639-0612
Volume1 Issue4

Introduction

Job satisfaction is the satisfying state of mind resulting from the appraisement of one’s job as achieving or facilities the achievement of one’s job values [1]. Stress is a condition which happens when one understands the burden on them or requirements of situation are extensive than they can deal with, and if these requirements are huge and continue for a long period of time without any break, mental, physical or behavioural problems may occur. In case of human being’s stress is often used to describe the body’s reactions to demands placed on it, whether these demands are favourable or unfavourable. Anything that causes stress is named as stressor. The manner of managing, coping, and psychological adjustment of stress of workers has influence on their job satisfaction [2]. Stress is resulted as a reaction of an employee when certain demands, pressures and professional aspects must be faced at the work place which is threat to the capabilities of the employee which in turn would create a struggle for existence in terms of being employed in a place [3].

The study of work or job satisfaction is a well-known area of research. As experts of good standing and status, doctors are of interest to the community at large, especially if their behaviour (on the job) affects the community that they serve [3]. It might be of social interest to find out the motivation and job happiness among doctors, a group to whom they often come into direct contact and to a certain level, put dependence on their physical well-being [4]. To researchers, job satisfaction among doctors, considered a higher order of workers, will contribute to the already present information on job satisfaction. It will also accept or reject the hypothesis that job satisfaction comes from receiving higher order rewards such as self-actualization [4-6]. A study examined the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction and responsiveness among 259 teachers in high schools of Urmia city. Parametric and non-parametric examination was used for the analysis. The result revealed that there was a significant and positive relationship between responsiveness and job satisfaction and significant and positive relationship between job satisfaction and job stress [7].

A research carried out in 2011 proved that job stress measured by role overload, physical environment, and role ambiguity negatively influenced job satisfaction of the employees [8]. Fatigue and workload are some of the policing stress factors that increase the turnover rates among the officers [9]. Studies on police officers in China found that job stress and job satisfaction have significant negative relationships [10]. Work satisfaction among doctors is an important concern because it is related to several important aspects of care, such as the continuity of care and health care costs [5]. Hence, the study hopes to see if similar factors correlate to happiness at work among the doctors, housemen and medical officers based at a government-based hospital.

Role of doctor is complex and sensitive as it is concerned with the health of generation so assessment of attitude towards their work seems very crucial. The doctors are not only the professionals. They are human beings too. They have their own way of thinking, feeling, perceiving and enacting and they have certain needs to be satisfied. These attitudes directly affect themselves, their patients and on their occupation, where as it indirectly affects society. If they are dissatisfied, they can’t perform their job properly. Medical is considered amongst the most stressful profession in Pakistan as the salaries of junior doctors are quite low, their working conditions are for the most part poor, number of patients is very high and work load is quote heavy in public hospitals contrary to such negative aspects. There are many things, which are considered good and attractive. Some of these are social relation; feelings of helping others when doctors consider these positive aspects as a result it gives satisfaction in the job. So, we need to assess the sex differences in the job satisfaction of Pgs. The Asian countries are big example of favouritism against and unequal assignation available to women even in medical profession. They are discriminated especially more than man. We should plan some set analysis for doctor to know their issues and so propose certain solutions to raise the level of job satisfaction of doctors. One reason of conducting this study is that it may benefit society in the sense of job satisfaction and thereby to raise the quality and amount of the work [11].

Method

This was a comparative co relational study. It was conducted over a period of one month. Sixty male and sixty female post graduate doctors were selected for the study by using non-probability purposive convenience sampling technique. The data was collected from the male and female Post graduate doctors of the PIMS. The age of the sample ranged between 25 to 50 years. The research instruments used were Stress Level Assessment Test and Job satisfaction Assessment Test. Results were compiled by using SPSS. T test was used to see the stress level and job satisfaction.

Results

The Alpha reliability coefficient of Stress level Assessment Test & Job Satisfaction Assessment Test was 0.88 and 0.72 respectively, which indicates that these are reliable tools for our sample Table 1 & 2. The value of correlation coefficients (r=0.07, p=0.58) shows that there is high correlation between job satisfaction and stress level Table 3. The variation in the mean score of male PG’s (M=78.41, SD=11.43) and female PG’s (M=61.21, SD=12.24) on Stress Level and the variation in the mean score of male PG’s (M=126.75, SD=14.12) and female PG’s (M=137.62, SD=16.94) on Job satisfaction shows that there is significant difference for both male and female on stress level & job satisfaction, Table 4 & 5. The variation in the mean score of low income PG’s (M=69.95, SD=14.01) and high income PG’s (M=68.64, SD=14.03) on Stress Level and the variation in the mean score of low income PG’s (M=129.98, SD=16.99) and high income PG’s (M=133.86, SD=17.63) on Job satisfaction shows that there is no significant difference on income level in both male and female PG’s, on job satisfaction and stress level, Table 6 & 7. The variation in the mean score of younger PG’s (M=68.17, SD=14.45) and older PG’s (M=72.21, SD= 13.04) on Stress Level and the variation in the mean score of younger PG’s (M=134.93, SD=15.86) and older PG’s (M=127.84, SD=17.85) on Job satisfaction indicates that there is no significant difference on age in both male and female for job satisfaction and stress level, Table 8 & 9. The variation in the mean score of married PG’s (M=70.07, SD=13.94) and unmarried PG’s (M=70.87, SD=14.27) on Stress Level and the variation in the mean score of married PG’s (M=132.98, SD=19.85) and unmarried PG’s (M=130.61, SD=15.79) on Job satisfaction shows that there is no significant difference on marital status in both male and female PG’s on job satisfaction and stress level, Table 10 & 11.

Table 1:Alpha reliability coefficient of stress level assessment Test (n=60).


Table 2:Alpha reliability coefficient of job satisfaction assessment Test (n=60).


Table 3:Correlation between stress level and job satisfaction.


Table 4:Comparison of male and female pg’s on stress level assessment test.

df=118 p <.001***


Table 5:Comparison of male and female PG’s on job satisfaction assessment test (n=60).

df=118 p <.05*


Table 6:Comparison of low income PG’s and high-income PG’s groups on Stress level scale (n=60).

df=118, p=n.s


Table 7:Comparison of low income PG’s and high-income PG’s on Job Satisfaction Scale (n=60).

df=118, p=n.s


Table 8:Comparison of younger and older PG’s on stress level scale (n=60).

df=118, p=n.s


Table 9:Comparison of younger and older groups on job satisfaction scale (n=60).

df=118, p=n.s


Table 10:Comparison of Married and Un-married PG’s on Stress level scale (n=60).

df=118, p=n.s


Table 11:Comparison of married and unmarried PG’s on Job Satisfaction Scale (n=60).

df=118, p=n.s


Discussion

Medical science is recognized as a stressful profession, and medical students face monstrous stress during their internship, and residency training, which affects their cognitive function, practical life, and patient care [12]. Work-related stress is still a developing concept, but it is reality, although the topic is covered in hundreds of papers published every year. The present study shows that many doctors were not satisfied with their jobs and showed unexpected state of stress. From birth till death, individuals must deal with stressful circumstances [13]. Stress can come from any situation that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or anxious [14]. Job stress among health care professionals and doctors has attained considerable importance today because their occupations are more prone to stress. Ongoing stress can have bad impact that results in several problems as headaches, stomach aches; sleep deprivation etc [15]. Result of one study indicated workload in public hospitals is a big source of stress for the doctors. Many factors contribute in public hospital like emergency calls, dealing with aggressive patients in peak hours, monotonous routine, sleep deprivation and unable to have regular meals at time and these all factors results in high level of doctor’s stress. Our results are in accordance with several studies that job satisfaction was significantly correlated with stress from work [16].

In another study, the doctors showed moderate or low satisfaction with different job aspects. The survey showed 90% of respondents were unhappy with reforms of the health care system, and over 60% of them expressed general dissatisfaction with their work. Around 44% would not suggest this field to a young person. About half of the physicians (47%) were thinking about switching their job, and the many of them (78%) were looking for work in another country. Female doctors scored significantly high on job satisfaction test than male doctors [17]. One study investigated the difference between gender (male and female teachers) and types of school (urban and rural) about job satisfaction. Study was elaborative design wise and Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was collected from 785 teachers selected from all Public High schools (192) in one district. The findings revealed that female teachers were more satisfied than their male counterparts. There was no significant difference between urban and rural teachers’ job satisfaction. Men have significantly low satisfaction level about these factors compared to women [18].

With respect to the predictability of demographic variables, few of these were found to effect job dissatisfaction. However, gender had a significant effect on salaries and workload, with female doctors expressing less dissatisfaction, whilst specialism was a predicting factor with respect to workload and specific working conditions [19]. Some sources of job satisfaction were the relationship employees have with their co-workers [20].

The results in our study shows that there is difference but not significant difference between married and unmarried, younger and older and low income and high-income PG’s on Stress Level and Job satisfaction test. According to a study on Greek doctors, an important source of job dissatisfaction for Greek hospital doctors is related to salary levels. Financial matters regarding the medical personnel have been the focus of attention for Greek social organizations and mass media for a long time. Hospital doctors assert that their salaries are not in balance with their contribution toward society, especially when compared to other working groups with the same working experience and much higher salaries. Job satisfaction and other job alternatives available also have a correlation to turnover [21]. Examination of demographic variables revealed that socialising with colleagues, age, and marital status were also predicting factors about job satisfaction, with older doctors and those who are married, expressing greater satisfaction [22]. Employees with over 10 years of experience are satisfied than younger employees [23].

Conclusion

In conclusion, we can state that job satisfaction is a multidimensional phenomenon where it is not easy to assign one factor as the sole determinant of satisfaction dissatisfaction with the job. Several factors operate simultaneously. The dynamics of the relations between the factors is more important than any one factor in isolation. While some steps have been taken to improve job satisfaction, it must be conceded that a lot more can be done.

References

  1. Abedi, Khorshidifar (2012) An Empirical study of the impact of stress on the relationship between locus of control and job satisfaction and job performance. Management Science Letters Journal 1(4): 511-516.
  2. Sundaram MS, Kumaran MJ (2012) Occupational stress and coping strategies among grade1 police constables. International. Journal of Business Management & Economic Research 3(4): 579-589.
  3. Steve, Williams (2011) Managing workplace stress: a best practice blueprint. Fast track series, Publisher Wiley, Original from Cornell University, USA 1: 78-84.
  4. Loh FF, Lim WW, Aruna P, Ho S (2012) Housemen still being overworked and bullied, sending some into depression.
  5. Seo KH, Lim SM, Park KS, Key DH, Park YH (2012) A study on the current state of public health doctors. Journal of the Korean Medical Association 55(1): 56-73.
  6. Solberg IB, Ro KI, Aasland O, Gude T, Moum T, et al. (2012) The impact of change in a doctor’s job position: A five-year cohort study of job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors. BMC Health Services Research 16: 12-41.
  7. Sharma A, Lambert TW, Goldacre MJ (2012) Why UK trained doctors leave the UK: cross sectional survey of doctors in New Zealand. J R Soc Med 105(1): 25-34.
  8. Parsa S, Alizadeh S, Kasraie S (2013) The investigation of relationship between job stress and job satisfaction and responsiveness (accountability) of teachers in high schools of Urmia city. International Journal of Educational Science and Research. 3(1): 89-98.
  9. Mansoor M, Fida S, Nasir S, Ahmad Z (2011) The impact of job stress on employee job satisfaction: A study of telecommunication sector of Pakistan. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly 2(3): 50-56.
  10. Julseth J, Ruiz J, Hummer D (2011) Municipal police officer job satisfaction in Pennsylvania: A study of organizational development in small police departments. International Journal of Police Science & Management 13(3): 243-254.
  11. Yu Chi W (2011) Job stress and job performance among employees in the Taiwanese finance sector: The role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior & Personality. An International Journal 39(1): 21-32.
  12. Shaheen S (2014) Job satisfaction among male & female employees in public sector organizations. European Journal of Business and Management 6(4).
  13. Abdulghani HM, Irshad M, Zunitan Al, Sulihem AA, Dehaim Al, et al. (2014) Prevalence of stress in junior doctors during their internship training: A crosssectional study of three Saudi medical colleges’ hospitals. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 10: 1879-1886.
  14. Aslam HD, Mansoor N, Suleman Q (2014) Analysis of level of stress among doctors in public and private hospitals of Pakistan. International Journal of Learning and Development 3(2): 109-135.
  15. Kwaku NE (2012) Occupational stress and its effects on job performance: a case of koloridua polytechnic. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, pp. 11-45.
  16. Ho CC, Hung CT, Liu WW (2014) Job stress, job satisfaction and propensity to leave: moderating effect of support at work taking one regional hospital employee as an example. Med Health J 3: 25-36.
  17. (2013) Job satisfaction low among doctors.
  18. Nudrat S, Asdaque MM, Nawaz A, Haider N (2011) Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers: A comparative analysis of gender, urban and rural schools. Asian Social Science 7(8): 203.
  19. Antoniou, Cary L, Davidson (2016) Levels of job dissatisfaction and work-related stressors experienced by medical doctors in Greek hospitals. Journal of Compassionate Health Care 3: 4.
  20. Ibrahim M, Ahmed SF, Khan N, Khan Y, Awan ZM et al. (2012) Influencing factors of job satisfaction in technical organization. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies 4(3): 172-179.
  21. Óskarsdóttir HH (2015) Turnover intentions of preschool employees in Hafnarfjörður municipality.
  22. Yongbeom Hur (2013) Turnover, voluntary turnover, and organizational performance: evidence from municipal police departments. Public Administration Quarterly 37(1): 3-35.
  23. Unutmaz S (2014) Factors affecting job satisfaction of employees in a public (doctoral dissertation, middle east technical university).

© 2018 Asima Mehboob Khan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.



About Crimson

We at Crimson Publishing are a group of people with a combined passion for science and research, who wants to bring to the world a unified platform where all scientific know-how is available read more...

Leave a comment

Contact Info

  • Crimson Publishers, LLC
  • 555 Madison Avenue, 5th floor
  •     New York, NY 10022, USA
  • +1 (929) 600-8049
  • +1 (929) 447-1137
  • info@crimsonpublishers.com
  • www.crimsonpublishers.com