Department of experimental Morphology, Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgaria
*Corresponding author: Ilieva I, Department of Experimental Morphology, Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Submission: September 12, 2021; Published: April 26, 202
ISSN: 2577-1922Volume2 Issue4
Heavy metals are major polluters of the environment. They disrupt the functions of the digestive system, nervous system, respiratory system, reproductive system, etc. These elements induce generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which mediate multiple changes in the cellular behaviour by altering signalling pathways and epigenetic modifications or cause direct oxidative damages of biologically active macromolecules. Оxidative Stress (OS) is a strong molecular mechanism, which could cause different abnormalities in the DNA-molecule in the embryonic cellular lineages during the spermatogenesis, but also, production of dysfunctional fetal cells and this, to cause male infertility. Also, these metals/metalloids profoundly affect protein homeostasis and cellular viability by interference with protein forming, folding and functions processes in living cells. Misfolded proteins are cytotoxic, as they may aggregate and/or interact inappropriately with other cellular components. The purpose of the current review is to be discussed some of the possible biochemical and physiological mechanisms, by which metals/metalloids affect or contribute to the disruption of male reproductive processes. Investigations on these mechanisms are important about the correct diagnostic of different pathological processes, but also about development of appropriate therapeutic and preventive against the toxicity, cause by heavy metals.
Keywords: Heavy metals; Protein folding; Protein aggregation; Reactive oxygen species; Oxidative stress; Male infertility