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Open Access Research in Anatomy

New Contribution to Medicine, Physiology and Urology

  • Open or CloseAhmed N Ghanem*

    Retired Consultant Urologist, Egypt

    *Corresponding author: Ahmed N Ghanem MD, FRCS, Retired Consultant Urologist, No 1, Jasmine Tower, President Mubarak Street, Mansoura 35511, Egypt

Submission: November 07, 2017; Published: November 15, 2017

DOI: 10.31031/OARA.2017.01.000510

ISSN: 2577-1922
Volume1 Issue2


These newly reported articles present new discoveries in Medicine, Physiology and Urology [1-4]. The articles recognizes 2 new types of socks and its treatment, proves that Starling’s law for the capillary interstitial fluid transfer is wrong and provides an alternative mechanism; the hydrodynamics of a porous orifice (G) Tube. Volumetric Overload Shock (VOS) is a condition caused by massive fluid infusions and is of two types; Type one (VOS1) and Type two (VOS2). VOS1 is induced by sodium-free fluid gain of 3.5-5 litres such as Glycine, Glucose, Mannitol and Sorbitol. It is known as the TURP syndrome or hyponatraemic shock [5]. VOS2 is induced by massive infusion of sodium-based fluids such as normal saline, Ringer, Hartmann, plasma and plasma substitutes that may complicate the therapy of VOS1. VOS2 also complicates fluid therapy in critically ill patients suffering from other known shocks such as hypovolaemic, haemorrhagic and septicaemic and presents with the adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [6]. VOS2 is induced by the gain of 12-14 litres of sodium-based fluids when reported in ARDS. The occurrence of massive interstitial tissue oedema with congestion of vital organs, pleural and peritoneal effusion, in the presence of hypotension shock, casted doubt on Starling’s law!

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