Nutritional Science Laboratory, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Ehime University, Japan
*Corresponding author: Keshab Bhattarai, Nutritional Science Laboratory, Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi,Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan
Submission: April 19, 2018; Published: May 31, 2018
ISSN 2640-9208 Volume2 Issue2
A micro-RNA (mi-RNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule containing about 21-25 nucleotides. Micro-RNAs are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down regulate the gene expression in a variety of manners, including translational repression, mRNA cleavage, and deadenylation. This mechanism relies on the seed region of nucleotide sequence of mi-RNAs that bind to target mRNA . Imperfect pairing of sequences in the seed region in mi-RNA to mRNA impairs gene down- regulation at the protein or RNA level . The mRNA degradation occurs if the mi-RNA nucleotide sequence has a high degree of complementarities to the mRNA sequence [3,4]. Most of the circulating mi-RNAs exist in packaged exosomes [5,6]. Exosomes are the extracellular vesicles containing variety of compounds, lipids, proteins including mRNAs, micro-RNAs (mi- RNAs), and other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) [7,8]. Exosomes are not only play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication but also in the role of protection against enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation of cargos.