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Modern Research in Dentistry

Lip Changes Following Non-Extraction Orthodontic Treatment
  • Open or CloseZeyad Nazar Majeed1, Alabsi AM2, Dasan Swaminathan3 and Koshy Philip4*

    1Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Babylon, Iraq

    2Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Malaysia

    3Department of Restorative Dentistry, Lincoln University College, Malaysia

    4Lincoln University College, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

    *Corresponding author:Koshy Philip, Lincoln University College, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

Submission: August 16, 2019 Published: September 03, 2019

DOI: 10.31031/MRD.2019.04.000588

Volume4 Issue3


Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of LL-37 and subgingival periodontal pathogens in the periodontal health and disease among three ethnic groups in Malaysia.

Methods: Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and subgingival plaque samples from 28 healthy subjects (H), 30 patients with gingivitis (G) and 30 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) were collected. The LL- 37 levels were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the subgingival periodontal pathogens were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Result: The LL-37 levels were significantly higher in the CP group than other groups. The detectability of LL-37 in CP group was 100%, while in H and G groups was 78.5% and 93.3% respectively. Red complex species populations in CP group are higher than in other groups. The LL-37 levels in GCF were positively correlated with red complex and A. actinomycetemcomitans species in the subgingival plaque. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between the LL-37 levels and periodontal pathogens which play major role in the initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis.

Conclusion: LL-37 in GCF may be considered as relevant biomarker for chronic periodontitis. Furthermore, red complex species count can be useful in the differentiation between the different stages of periodontal disease.

Keywords: Human cathelicidine LL-37; GCF; Periodontal pathogens; Biomarkers

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