1 School of Dentistry, Taiwan
2 College of Dental Medicine, Taiwan
3 Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
*Corresponding author: CChi Cheng Tsai, School of Dentistry, Taiwan
Submission: January 08, 2019 Published: March 13, 2019
Background: Researchers have investigated the relationship among serotype distribution, ethnical status and geographic populations, and periodontal conditions. Studies that have examined the prevalence and the distribution of A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) serotypes and the relation between the different serotypes of the bacterium and periodontal status were reviewed.
Material and methods: A systemic literature search for publications in the database PubMed between 1983 and January 2018 regarding the distribution of A.a. serotypes in subgingival samples of periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy subjects by various techniques (including culture, immunodiffusion, immunofluorence, polymerase chain reaction was carried out.
Results: From the cited studies, A.a. bacteria were isolated from various periodontal conditions, including aggressive periodontitis. Clinical isolates from diverse geographic populations with different periodontal conditions were summarized. Serotypes a, b and c were largely found, and serotype c was the most prevalent. The distribution of the most recently identified serotype g remains unknown.
Conclusion: The current literature reviews suggest that serotype a, b, and c are universally dominant, serotypes d, c and f are rare; the distribution of the most recently identified serotype g still needs more studies to provide its distribution and its effect on periodontitis. It is widely accepted that distribution patterns of A.a. vary among subjects of different ethnicity and geographic regions. The importance of the identification of A.a. and their antibiotic susceptibility tests prior to the treatments of periodontitis especially for aggressive periodontitis and peri-implantitis concomitantly to periodontal therapy are strongly advised.
Keywords: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.); Serotypes; Aggressive periodontitis (AgP); Periodontal diseases; Prevalence