Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding author:Kavya K, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka, India
Submission: July 22, 2019Published: August 07, 2019
ISSN: 2577-2015Volume3 Issue2
Background: Bacterial vaginosis is a clinical condition caused by replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide producing Lactobacillus sp. in the vagina with high concentrations of characteristic sets of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is believed to be a risk factor for preterm delivery. Bacterial vaginosis is reported in 10 - 41% of women with an evidence of maternal and fetal morbidity. Studies have shown that spontaneous abortion, preterm labour (PTL), premature birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid infection, postpartum endometritis are increased because of infection with bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy.
Objectives: To study the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in women presenting with preterm labour and term labour, to analyze the causal relationship between BV and PTL and to analyze the maternal and fetal complications associated with bacterial vaginosis.
Materials and methods: An observational study involving 100 patients with preterm and term labour (50 patients in each group) was conducted at JJM Medical College, Davangere. Bacterial vaginosis was determined to be present or absent on the basis of Amsel’s criteria. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to demonstrate the difference between both groups with respect to various categorical data. Independent ‘t’ test was used to compare the mean maternal age and mean gestational age at admission in both the groups.
Results: The proportion of patients who fulfilled Amsel’s criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was significantly more in preterm labour group as compared to term labour group, and the difference was highly significant statistically. In preterm labour group a greater number of neonates born to women who had bacterial vaginosis had low birth weight as well as neonatal complications as compared to those born to women without bacterial vaginosis. Maternal postpartum complications observed were also more in women with bacterial vaginosis as compared to women without bacterial vaginosis in preterm labour group.
Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis is major risk factor for preterm labour. Therefore, the testing for bacterial vaginosis and its prompt treatment may reduce the risk of preterm labour. This will also go a long way in the prevention of neonatal complications due to prematurity.
Keywords: Bacterial vaginosis; Preterm labour; Term labour