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Developments in Anaesthetics & Pain Management

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) Ultrasonography and its Clinical Application-A Review and Update

Submission: September 12, 2017; Published: June 07, 2018

Volume1 Issue3
June 2018


Transcranial Doppler (TCD) Ultrasonography is a bedside, non-invasive duplex study of intracranial blood flow dynamic through some selected region or window in the cranial region. TCD provides information about the physiology of blood flow in the basal intracranial major arteries by measuring flow velocity and pulsality in different segment of these arteries. The physiologic data obtained from the cerebrovascular hemodynamic are complimentary to anatomical data obtained from various imaging techniques and it can be used as bedside monitor to assess the cerebrovascular changes in response to any intervention. Common application of TCD includes detection of vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage, vasooclusion in sick cell disease, cerebral strokes, intracranial pressure monitoring, intraoperatively monitoring to detect micro-embolism, early detection of brain death and cerebral auto regulatory testing. The review focus on basic principles of TCD, scanning techniques and described application of TCD in some of the common clinical conditions.

Keywords: Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography; Cerebral blood flow; Cerebral vasospasm; Sick cell disease; Intracranial pressure; Brain death; Cerebral auto regulation

Abbreviations: TCD: Transcranial Doppler; CBF: cerebral blood flow; PSV: peak systolic Velocities; EDV: End Diastolic Velocities; PI: Pulsatility Index ; RI: Resistive Index; MCA: middle cerebral artery; ACA: Anterior cerebral Artery; PCA: Posterior Cerebral Artery; BA: Basilar Artery; VA: Vertebral Artery; MAP: Mean Arterial Pressure; MFV: Mean Flow Velocity; ICP: Intra Cranial Pressure; NPV: Negative Predictive value

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