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Associative Journal of Health Sciences

Frequency of Associated Congenital Heart Defects in Down Syndrome

Submission: January 28, 2019;;Published: February 27, 2019


Background: Patients with Down syndrome are prone to have congenital heart defects. Study was done to find the frequency of congenital heart defects in children with Down’s syndrome in Children Hospital Lahore.

Material and methods: The descriptive study had directed by the Department of Cardiology in The Children’s Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore, in year 2017. One hundred and seven phenotypically Down syndrome children coming to the cardiology department for echocardiography from birth to 13 years were included in this study. The 2-dimension echocardiography had been done after detailed history and physical examination.

Results: Congenital heart defects were found in 63 out of 107 patients (59%). Among the affected patients, 68(63.5%) were males and 39(36.5%) females with ratio of 1.7:1. Among the isolated single lesions ventricular septal defect found in 60.3% patent ductus arteriosus in 13.7%, complete atrioventricular defects in 8.6%, followed by ASD in 6.8%, Pulmonary atresia with VSD in 6.8%, Tetralogy of Fallot and TGA in 1.7% of patients. Among the mixed lesion (4.7%) VSD+ASD found in two patients while COA+PDA, Univentricular heart with TGA and PA+VSD+DORV found in each patient.

Conclusion: Heart defects are found in 59% children with Down syndrome. The commonest in a cyanotic lesion are ventricular septal defect, in cyanotic cardiac lesion pulmonary atresia and VSD. In case of mix lesion ventricular septal defect with atrial septal defect were found.

Keywords: Down syndrome; Congenital heart disease; Transposition of great arteries; Pulmonary atresia; Tetralogy of fallot’s; Ventricular septal defect

Abbreviations: VSD: Ventricular Septal Defect; PDA: Patent Ductus Arteriosus; CAVSD: Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect; ASD: Atrial Septal Defect; PA+VSD: Pulmonary Atresia+Ventricular Septal Defects; TOF: Tetralogy of Fallot’s; TGA: Transposition of Great Arteries

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