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Abstract

Advancements in Case Studies

Cardiac Inducing RNAs (CIRs) from Human Fetal Heart Promote the Differentiation of Non-Muscle Cells to Form into Cardiomyocytes in vitro

Submission:March 17, 2021; Published: April 01, 2021

DOI: 10.31031/AICS.2021.03.000553

ISSN 2639-0531
Volume3 Issue1

Abstract

We have discovered a cardiac-inducing RNA (CIR) in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, (a salamander) and two cardiac inducing RNAs (CIR-6 and CIR-30) in human heart that have the ability to induce the differentiation of non-muscle cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells from human skin, mouse embryonic stem cells, and mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes in vitro. Although the primary sequences of salamander and human RNAs are not homologous, their secondary structures are very similar and we believe account for their shared unique abilities to promote differentiation of non-muscle cells into definitive cardiomyocytes. We are beginning to explore the potential for repair/regeneration of cardiac muscle in vivo using mouse and rat models with induced acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) to determine if pluripotent stem cells or fibroblasts transfected with the human CIRs or CIRs alone injected into the damaged areas of the hearts can affect repair of the damaged cardiac muscle tissue and return the infarcted hearts and the AMI animal models to pre-heart-attack function again. If cardiac cells damaged in heart attacks can be replaced with living, functioning cardiomyocytes, patients with heart disease would be able to have normal heart function restored and could return to normal pre-heart-attack activity levels. Understanding how CIR transforms non-muscle cells into vigorously contracting, functional cardiac muscle and effectively replacing damaged heart cells with newly-formed cardiac muscle tissue would represent a major breakthrough in modern biology and medicine with the potential to have a significant impact on the survival rate and quality of life of millions of individuals worldwide who suffer heart attacks each year.

Keywords: Cardiac inducing RNA; Cardiomyocytes; Cardiac regeneration/repair

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