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Significances of Bioengineering & Biosciences

Bioplastics- A Sustainable Biopolymer

Nida tabassum khan*

Department of Biotechnology, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Nida tabassum khan, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences & Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Takatu Campus, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan

Submission: September 23, 2021 Published: October 14, 2021

DOI: 10.31031/SBB.2021.05.000615

ISSN 2637-8078
Volume5 Issue3


Bioplastics have acquainted various adaptabilities with the environment. Bioplastics have brought more up-to-date difficulties to give an outline of the non-biodegradable petrochemical plastics market, including their underlined tests, common creation strategies, portrayal, and conceivable elective waste usage perspective. Thus, bioplastics is an alternative environmentally friendly sustainable polymer with attributes that can be utilized in numerous applications for commercial .

Keywords: Inexhaustible; Biodegradable; Polymerization; Petrochemical; Lactic acid; Cellulose

Abbreviations: PHA: Poly Hydroxyl Alkanoates; PHB: Poly Hydroxyl Butyrate; PLA: Poly Lactic Acid


Bioplastics are environmentally friendly biodegradable plastics derived from renewable biomass sources such as vegetable oil, corn/potato starch, microbes, agricultural waste, etc [1,2]. Inexhaustible sources are turning into a more reasonable and promising option for the plastics business [3]. When plastic is produced using hydrocarbons, they discharge carbon dioxide into the air, prompting a worldwide temperature alteration, and are not biodegradable [4]. Furthermore, the global industry is considering green plastics as an alternative sustainable material [5]. Bioplastics are being utilized in making shopping sacks, cutlery, bundling, mulch film, food administration items, fishing nets and so forth. They are made in a much cleaner way than any conventional plastics [6]. Also, it can be fabricated from cellulose, corn starch, plant oil, potato starch, sugarcane etc [7].

Types of Bioplastics

There are numerous types of bioplastics some are as follows:

a. Cellulosic bioplastics

b. Poly Hydroxyl Alkanoates (PHA)

c. Poly Hydroxyl Butyrate (PHB)

d. Polylactic Acid (PLA) plastic

e. Starch based plastics [8-10].

Cellulosic bioplastic

Cellulose is the most naturally occurring carbon-based polymer composed of glucose monomer units combined with β 1,4 glycosidic linkages, which empower cellulose chains to pack firmly together and structure solid between chain hydrogen bonds [11]. However, it is hard to use in bundling in its hydrophilic nature, helpless dissolvability qualities, and profoundly translucent construction [12].

Polyhydroxylalkanoates (PHA)

Poly Hydroxyl Alkanoates are linear polyesters produced in nature by microbial fermentation of sugar or starch to store carbon and energy [13]. PHA is more pliable and less flexible than different plastics, and it is additionally biodegradable [14]. These plastics are in effect generally utilized in clinical applications [15].

Polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB)

The biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate is a polyester created by specific microorganisms fermenting glucose or corn starch [16]. Its attributes are like those of the petro plastic polypropylene and are highly heat-resistant and solvent-resistant [17]. Poly Hydroxyl Butyrate is mainly employed in industrial, biomedical and agriculture fields [18].

Polylactic Acid (PLA)

PLA is arising as one of the most magnetic materials given its excellent biodegradability, measure capacity, and biocompatibility [19]. Poly-lactic is a transparent plastic fabricated from corn or lactic acid [20]. Its qualities are like ordinary petrochemicalbased mass plastics and is utilized in plastic preparing to create film, filaments, plastic compartments, cups and jugs [21]. It is the most climate cordial bioplastic available. The synthesis of PLA is a multistep reaction that begins from lactic acid formation and finishes with its polymerization [22]. Lactic acid can be acquired from sustainable sources like corn, potato, and sugar sticks [23]. The fundamental interaction is ring-opening polymerization of lactate to get high sub-atomic weight PLA [24].

Starch based plastics

Starch, made of amylose (20-30%) and amylopectin (70- 80%), is primarily obtained from cereal grains like corn (maize), wheat, potato and rice and its application in biodegradable plastics are either blended in with its local granules or dissolved on an atomic level with the suitable polymer [25,26]. Amylose is potent for the film shaping capacity of starch [27]. Starch-based films display physical qualities like ordinary plastics film in that they are scentless, colorless, non-poisonous [28]. Bioplastics results in reduced carbon dioxide emissions, reduced toxic run-off generated by the oil-based alternatives and overall benefit to the rural economy [29].

Application of Bioplastics

The utilization of bioplastics for shopping is as of now is extremely normal [3]. After their underlying use they can be reused and afterward biodegraded in soil [30]. Plate and compartments for organic products, vegetables, eggs, meat, bottles for soda pops and dairy items and rankle foils for leafy foods are currently made from bioplastics [30]. In addition, bioplastic is widely used in biomedical field applications and in paper coating by food industries [31].

Drawbacks of Bioplastics

Bioplastics are produced using plants like corn and maize, so land that could be utilized to develop nourishment for the world is being utilized to “develop plastic” all things being equal. If biodegradable plastic is not appropriately discarded, it prompts a wasteful breakdown of the plastic, which can deliver poisons (carbon dioxide, methane and so forth) into the climate [32].

Current Trends in Bioplastics

a) Waste chicken plumes changed over into bioplastics [33].

b) 100% plant-based bioplastic.

c) Researchers engineer qualities of plants to develop crude materials for green plastic [34].

d) New plant unsaturated fat determined plastic can be separated to diesel-like fluid fuel [35].

e) Some different options in contrast to plastics are: glass, fluid wood, jute fiber, milk protein, corn-based plastics [8].


The utilization of bioplastics is advanced, comprising in getting regular polymers from farming, cellulose or potato and corn starch squander. These are 100% biodegradable, safe and flexible, currently utilized in agribusiness, material industry, medication and, over all, in the compartment and bundling business sector. Biopolymers are, as of now, becoming popular worldwide.


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