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Significances of Bioengineering & Biosciences

Factors Affecting the Contribution of 1st Year Female Students Tutorial Class on their Academic Achievement in First Semester of 2016, the Case of Afan Oromo and Literature Department

Itefa Degefa*1, Lachissa Fayera2 and Indalkachew Lelisa3

1 Department of Biology, Bule Hora University, Ethiopia

2 Department of Afan Oromo and Literature, Bule Hora University, Ethiopia

3 Department of History, Bule Hora University, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author:Itefa Degefa, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Bulehora University, Ethiopia,

Submission: April 11, 2018; Published: June 25, 2018

DOI: 10.31031/SBB.2018.01.000525

ISSN 2637-8078
Volume1 Issue5


Female students are usually outnumbered by their male counterpart in both academic participation and achievement in all disciplines particularly in tertiary education [1-5]. This study was carried out on first year female students of Afan Oromo department in BuleHora University which is located at 467km south of Addis Ababa. The study was aimed to find out factors that influenced the contribution of first year female students’ in Afan Oromo Department on their academic achievement at the first semester of 2016. All first year female students and instructors of Afan Oromo department in the University who participated in tutorial classes in the first semester of 2016 were the focus of this study. The first year Afan Oromo female students and instructors who thought them were administered the questionnaire papers without random sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and the result showed that 100% of the female students and instructors were highly interested in tutorial class. 54.29% of the students responded that teachers did not make proper use of their time. 68.57% of the students took part in tutorial class for general knowledge and 28.57% of them to part in order to obtain maximum result. From the allocated 16 hours, 57.14% used between 10 to 16 hours while 25.71% used 2-4 hours. Insufficient time was the major factor that hindered female students due to teachers’ unavailability as 71.43% of the students responded. While lack of class room had less influence on their performance as 5.71% of the students responded. The female students’ low academic achievement that semester was a result of insufficient tutorial. Therefore, it is important to take sufficient time to teach and improve female students’ academic achievement at future.

keywords: Tutorial; Academic achievement; Participation; Female students


Introduction Education is considered as a first step for every human activity in the era of globalization and technological revolution. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living [6]. It ensures the acquisition of knowledge and skills that enable individuals to increase their productivity and improve their quality of life. This increase in productivity also leads towards new sources of earning which enhances the economic growth of a country [7]. The relationship between gender and the academic achievement of students has been discussed for decades [8]. Educators, trainers, and researchers have long been interested in exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of performance of learners. These variables are inside and outside school that affect students’ quality of academic achievement. These factors may be termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and peer factors [9]. These factors include age, gender, geographical location, ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic status, parents’ education level, parental profession, language, income and religious affiliations. These are usually discussed under the umbrella of demography [10]. Theory of Educational Productivity by [11] determined three groups of nine factors based on affective, cognitive and behavioral skills for optimization of learning that affect the quality of academic performance: Aptitude (ability, development and motivation); instruction (amount and quality); environment (home, classroom, peers and television) [12].

As the grade level in school increases, the number of female students starts to decline due to several factors [13]. Currently, female enrollments in higher education are significantly on the increase. But gender differences still exist in education participation and performance in each year of higher education. This means that there are factors that hinder female participation and performance in higher education [14]. It has been observed that there is a gap between male and female achievement, while females showing better performance than boys in certain instances [15].

Female students are outnumbered by male studentsboth in participation and academic achievement in all disciplines particularly in tertiary education [16]. Most recent international assessment studies agree that female students tend to have low academic achievement than male students irrespective of their educational level [16]. In Ethiopia, the proportion of females’ to males’ higher education academic achievement and participation has not yet reached the same [4]. In spite of the fact that important steps were taken towards gender equity, evidence exist that educators treat male and female differently [5]. Teachers’ attitudes, treatment and expectations influence girls’ performance.

Statements of the problem

Bule Hora University teachers give extra tutorial classes to female students in order to enable them perform better in their academics by separating them from male students usually throughout the semester and mostly when final exam approaches. In Bule Hora the case of Afan Oromo and Literature department, despite that tutorial class is scheduled and instructors make time for the schedule, the academic achievement of the female students is still not satisfactory. This study was aimed to collect data about the various background characteristics on females’ academic performance, the major problems that challenge first year female students and the major factors that affect females’ academic performance in Afan Oromo department.

General objective

The general objective of this study was to find out factors that affect the academic performance of first year female students of Afan Oromo Department in the first semester of 2016.

Specific objectives

A. To identify and analyze factors that affect 1st year Afan Oromo female students’ academic performance.

B. To investigate contribution of 1st year Afan Oromo female students’ in tutorial class.

C. To find out solution for the participation of 1st year Afan Oromo female students to tutorial classes.

Research Methodology

Study area

This study was carried out in Bule Hora University located at 467km Addis Ababa. The university had 26 departments in six faculties which support female students by giving tutorial class at the end of the semesters. Out of these departments, Afan Oromo department offered tutorial classes for first year female students by separating them from male students in addition to the normal classes.

Research design

A survey method of descriptive research design was applied in this study so as to clearly describe factors that affect contribution of female students’ academic performance. Qualitative approach was used for the purpose of using non-numeric explanation to describe and compare the respondents’ opinions for the open ended questionnaire relative to the research topic. Quantitative approach was also used for the purpose of using numeric explanation to describe respondents’ response (female students’ response on the questionnaires).

Sampling techniques

This study focused on the major factors that affect the contribution of 1st year female students in tutorial class on their academic achievement. Although the female students’ problems are multidimensional, this study attempts was made to examine on campus factors. All first year female students and all instructors of Afan Oromo department of Bule Hora University who participated in tutorial class in the first semester of 2016 were the focus of this study. During data collection to minimize error of the data the total numbers of first year. The female students totally achieved the questionnaire papers. Instructors who thought first year female students of Afan Oromo department during first semester of 2016 were totally involved without random sampling.

Data analysis

After collection of data, the quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS and qualitative data were analyzed by narration and summarization.

Result and Discussion

Table 1: Factors that influence academic achievement

All samples from 35 female students and two teachers of the department were properly responded to and the results of the study variables were presented in following descriptive statistics and discussed accordingly. In the study, the data realized from questionnaires were analyzed and indicated in percentages. According to Table 1 below, all the first year female students of Afan Oromo had 100% interest in the tutorial class. However, out of the required 16hrs, 19 (54.29%) of the students responded that the teachers did not make maximum use of the time. Though the time was not maximized, according to the students, there was a high level of willingness from the teachers. Table 1 shows the willingness of the teachers but this did not affect the performance of the students. Thus the teachers’ willingness did not have any impact on the students’ performance.

According to Table 2, 68.57% of Afan Oromo department first year first semester female students of 2016 participated in tutorial class for general knowledge and 28.57% scored maximum point. And also from the time given (16 hours) to them, 57.14% used their time (10-16hrs) and 25.71% of them used 2-4hours. This difference might be the absenteeism of the student from the tutorial class at the time they were required. Lack of time was the major factor that hindered the female students due to teacher’s absence. 71.43% of the students responded that the lack of class room less influenced their participation where 5.71% of them responded. This result shows that academic achievement of first year first semester of Afan Oromo department in 2016 could be affected due to lack of excess time in which students were let from the class.

Table 2: Responses from female students concerning to the tutorial class.

However these students had willing to tutorial class for clarification (60%) and the teachers interest for supporting students (94.29%), there were challenges like lack of sufficient time (62.86%) and lack of class room (34.29%) to these students which can influence their academic achievement. This study in line with the study of [3] which says factors such as school infrastructure, class size, teacher experience and qualifications and availability of instructional materials have emphasized largely in low-income countries.

It is shown that 57.14% of respondents generalized about tutorial class if it is continued as it is and 22.86% of them were responded if it is strengthen somewhat more than the previous. 8.57% of them needs if tutorial class is given on all courses. The present result correlate with study of [2] which says “The school should strengthen and extend the guidance and counseling service, to improve self-confidence among females, especially via assertiveness training, the school must include promotion of gender issues and female support services.’’

The interest of the teachers to give tutorial class for female students is 100% from the Table 3. The result shows that teachers’ interest level was based on the support given to them by the organization as in payment, (as indicated by 50% of the students) and additional advantage like satisfaction (as also indicated by 50% of the students). Where interest was shown, there were also some challenges like lack of sufficient time (as indicated by 100% of the students), such that 50% of the teachers used only 6-8hours from the time expected for tutorial class. The action taken by the teachers to minimize the challenges was time arrangement (100%) and as a result of this the students’ grade improved after tutorial class (100%). Another study has also proved that peer support and support from teachers have significant effects on female students’ academic performance in higher learning institutions. Other findings have indicated lack of academic support or staff hostility as a reason for female students’ dropping out of the higher institutions of learning [1].

Table 3: Responses from teachers concerning to tutorial class.


The results of this study show that female students and teachers of Afan Oromo department showed total interest in the prescribed tutorial classes. Thus, lack of interest is not the factor influencing their low academic performance. However, there were other factors such as time (57.14% of students used 10-16 hours). The remaining students did not have time to participate in the tutorial classes. Similarly, 50% of the teachers used 10-16 hours and 50% out of them were busy. This is due to the time limitation in which tutorial classes were scheduled when both teachers and students were busy with other duties. As a result of this, 100% of the female students realized that teachers did not have sufficient time to teach them. 94.29% of female students believed that the teachers taught them in order to support them; however the great challenge they faced during tutorial class was insufficient time, most of them (57.14%) said that tutorial could be continued.


Based on the result of this research, the authors recommend that tutorial time should be properly managed and maximized in order for the female students to achieve satisfying results at future.


The authors would like to thank almighty God for all his support. We also appreciate the first year female students of Afan Oromo female students and their teachers. Finally, we would like to thank to Bule Hora University for financial support.


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© 2018 Itefa Degefa. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

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