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Research & Investigations in Sports Medicine

The Examination of Midsole Construction on Bowling Footwear

  • Open or CloseTsung Lin Lu1 and Tom Wu2*

    1School of Sport and Exercise Science, USA

    2School of Sport and Exercise Science, USA

    *Corresponding author: Tong Ching Tom Wu, College of Education and Health Sciences, Director of Biomechanics Laboratory, Sport Science Innovation Program, 90 Burrill Avenue, Bridgewater, MA 02325, USA

Submission: October 07, 2022;Published: December 12, 202

DOI: 10.31031/RISM.2022.09.000708

ISSN: 2577-1914
Volume9 Issue2


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of midsole construction (barefoot, traditional bowling shoes with minimalist midsole design, and the modified bowling shoes with E-TPU midsole design) on the amount of shock absorption and the mechanics of bowling delivery. All shoes underwent static testing on top of a force platform. Twelve males (height 1.76±0.06m; weight 76.5±10.8kg; age 25±4 years old) volunteered for dynamic testing. Force plate data were recorded at 1,000Hz with Vicon Nexus software to evaluate the amount of shock absorption. Ariel Performance Analysis System software was used to measure the 2D body kinematic joint angles and velocities of hip, knee, and ankle, stride length, and linear ball velocity. The kinetic results indicated that the bowling footwear with the E-TPU material provided lower amount of initial peak vertical ground reaction force and rate of loading, which may potentially be beneficial to bowlers to minimize lower extremity injury. However, there was no significant difference found in the peak vertical ground reaction force with respect to each participant’s body weight. The findings of this study provided an understanding on the effects of the E-TPU material on shock absorption in bowling footwear. The kinematic results indicated that no significant difference was found in the lower extremity for the joint angles and velocities of hip, knee, and ankle, stride length, and linear ball velocity. The findings of this study could help practitioners understand that midsole construction does not affect mechanics of bowling delivery and provide further understanding on the effect of footwear cushioning on athletic performance. Future studies are warranted to evaluate 3D motion analysis with experienced bowlers at the bowling alley and the internal joint forces and torques of bowling delivery mechanics.

Keywords: Bowling; Etpu; Kinematic; Kinetic; Midsole

Abbreviations: EVA: Ethylene Vinyl Acetate; PU: Polyurethane; BASF: Badische Anilinund Soda-Fabrik; E-TPU: Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane

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