The environment is contaminated by different types of waste and it is a big threat for the earth. The increase of population and request for industrial organization revealed pollution in land, air, water environment. Industrial, domestic and hospital effluents contain textile dyes, heavy metals, petroleum oil, PAHs and cancer-causing amines. Petroleum oil, heavy metal, dyes contaminated wastewater is a hazard for the environment and especially marine ecosystem. Bioremediation is a good way to heal our environment. Bioremediation by microorganism is eco-friendly, effective and cheap. This mini review put forward the microorganism which is efficient on bioremediation.
Petroleum refinery effluents were produced from the crude oil, fuel processing and industries . Also industrial, hospital and domestic effluents can easily create contaminated soil. These effluents are an important cause of contamination in the natural ecosystem, especially are a huge threat for environment. Petroleum oils have ingredients which are toxic to plants, animals, human health . Bioremediation is a biological mechanism that utilizes the metabolic potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments . It is a microbiological process which converts contaminates to nontoxic or less toxic elemental and compound forms. Meanwhile It is used hydrocarbons as energy and food sources for reproduction and growth. During biodegradation, the hydrocarbons are mineralized to carbon dioxide and water. However, this process does not always consist because of the difference of efficient factors of biodegradation . Bioremediation and biodegradation are close terms . Microorganisms can be effective for bioremediation processes to eliminate and modify pollutants  microorganisms have a significant role for pollutant removal tools in soil, water and sediments . Natural microbes and cultivated in the laboratory, both of them can be used in bioremediation process. These microorganisms are bacteria, yeasts, molds, fungi, algae and some plants. Many bacterial species have the ability to degrade oil . Thanks to its high efficiency, cheapness, microorganism-originated bioremediation is counted as a promising and inventive method to reduce contamination .
Microorganisms have an essential role in human health and are also important for ecological balance . Bioremediation is comprised of degrading, removing, altering, immobilizing, or detoxifying wastes from the environment with the help of the bacteria, fungi. Many microbial genera have been known to be counted in bioremediation, including Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Aspergillus, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Talaromyces and Trichoderma . Chemical contaminants can be used by microorganims as an energy source via their metabolic process . Table 1 shows us the strains of some species that are commonly used for bioremediation resolutions.
This paper reviews species of microbes and their targets for
bioremediation. The earth’s biggest problem is pollution and it
is getting worse each day. Bioremediation through microbes is
a potent solution to clean up pollution. The research shows us
bioremediation provides the achievement of clean water. In previous
works isolated strains have been shown to play an important
role in bioremediation by degrading heavy metals, petroleum oil,
chemicals. The major problem these days is pollution and the best
solution is bioremediation by microbes can be the best solution.
Kilic IH, Iyidogan AK, Aaazi NA, Oguzkan SB, Ozaslan M (2018) Bioremediation of wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from Baiji thermal power station in Iraq. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 27(8): 5223-5229.
Professor, Chief Doctor, Director of Department of Pediatric Surgery, Associate Director of Department of Surgery, Doctoral Supervisor Tongji hospital, Tongji medical college, Huazhong University of Science and Technology