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Abstract

Novel Approaches in Cancer Study

Cancer Epigenetics: Shifting to More Deep Action

  • Open or CloseHussein Sabit1*, Shimaa Abdel-Ghany2, Emre Cevik1, Ferhad Serag El-Deen3, and Mokhtar El-Zawahri4,5

    1Department of Genetics, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    2Department of Environmental Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt

    3Department of Biochemistry, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

    4Department of Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt

    5Center of Research and Development, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt

    *Corresponding author:Hussein Sabit, Department of Genetics, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Dammam, 31441, Saudi Arabia

Submission: May 01, 2019 Published: May 28, 2019

DOI: 10.31031/NACS.2019.02.000548

ISSN:2637-773X
Volume2 Issue5

Abstract

Cancer is a major health problem facing the entire human population. It affects almost every race, gender, or age in the social hierarchy. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the development of cancer; either genetic or epigenetic. Over the years, a cumulative body of research indicated that epigenetic mutations (epimutations) represent a chief player in the course of cancer, where it affects cell proliferation, cancer initiation, progression, apoptosis, and metastasis. In this minireview we highlight the main mechanisms of epigenetic-mediated cancer development with emphasis on the environmental pollution role in this arena.

Keywords: Cancer; Epigenetics; Environment; miRNA; Methylation; Acetylation

Abbreviations: PAHs: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; AAs: Aromatic Amines; HAAs: Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines; AAS: 2-Amino-Apidic Semialdehyde; HAAs: Halo acetic acids; TSGs: Tumor Suppressor Genes; DNMT: DNA Methyltransferase; MECP2: Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2; MBD: Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain; HDAC: Histone Deacetylase; TGF: Transforming Growth Factor; LINE: Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements; Alu: Repeats characterized first in Arthrobacter luteus ; AAP: Accumulation Associated Protein; EZH2: Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2; TMZ: Temozolomide; JMJD2C: Jumonji Domain 2; HATs: Histone Acetyl Transferase; Gcn5: General Control Nonderepressible-5; MYST: Histone Acetyltransferase KAT6A Its acronym comes from MOZ, YBF2/SAS3, SAS2 and TIP60 protein 3; CBP: CREB-Binding Protein; PTEN: Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog; APC: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli; IGF2: Insulin-like Growth Factor 2; IGF2R: Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 Receptor; PEG3: Paternally-Expressed Gene 3 Protein; GNAS: Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein, Alpha Stimulating Activity Polypeptide; MEST: Mesoderm Specific Transcript; LOI: Loss of imprinting; CDKN2: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; KRAS: Kirsten RAt Sarcoma; HPRT: Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl transferase; DAPK: Death-Associated Protein Kinase; RAR-β: Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta

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