1Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan
2Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
*Corresponding author: Shih-Hsien Hsu, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Submission: November 11, 2017; Published: December 08, 2017
In the past years, scientists have discovered tumor microenvironment (TME) as a comfort zone of cancer cells. Efforts are being globally made to disrupt this comfort zone of cancer cells. However, a despiteseveral effort, the complete blockage of tumor progression has not been achieved because of unclear cellular and molecular mechanisms of TME crosstalk. Cancer immunotherapy is one of the promising therapies that have the ability to disrupt TME by restoring the immune attack on malignant cells . However, positive outcomes of immunotherapy have been reported only in few patients, suggesting a need for the unmasking of regulatory mechanisms.