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Modern Applications in Pharmacy & Pharmacology

Physicochemical and Thermal Analysis of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Ofloxacin

Snehasis Jana1*, Dahryn Trivedi2, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi2, Alice Branton2 and Gopal Nayak2

1 Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., India

2 Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, USA

*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, India

Submission: December 06, 2018;Published: December 19, 2018;

DOI: 10.31031/MAPP.2018.02.000537

ISSN 2637-7756
Volume2 Issue3

Abstract

Ofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone broad-spectrum antibiotic used for the treatment of both Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. in this study, the impact of consciousness energy healing treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) on the physicochemical and thermal properties of ofloxacin powder sample was evaluated using modern analytical techniques. The ofloxacin was divided into control and the Biofield Energy Treated sample. Only the treated ofloxacin was received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a well-known Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi. The particle size values in the treated ofloxacin powder were significantly increased by 10.96%(d10), 29.09%(d50), 14.03%(d90), and 12.48% {D(4,3)}; thus, the surface area was significantly decreased by 8.06% compared to the control ofloxacin. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the treated ofloxacin were significantly altered ranging from -70.76% to 4.73% and -70.36% to 314.81%, respectively; however, the average crystallite was significantly increased by 25.22% compared with the control sample. The latent heat of fusion and decomposition was significantly altered by 13.43% and -53%, respectively in the treated ofloxacin compared with the control sample. The total weight loss was significantly decreased by 4.19%; however, the residue amount was significantly increased by 26.97% in the treated ofloxacin compared with the control sample. Thus, the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of ofloxacin with better shape, appearance, flowability, and thermally more stable compared to the control sample. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treated ofloxacin would be very useful to design novel pharmaceutical formulations for the better therapeutic response against urinary tract infections, infections of the urethra, and cervix, pneumonia, cellulitis, diarrhoea, bronchitis, plague, tuberculosis, prostatitis, and otitis media, etc.

Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Ofloxacin; The trivedi effect®; Consciousness energy healing treatment; Particle size; PXRD; DSC; TGA/DTG

Introduction

Ofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat a variety of Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacterial infections [1]. It causes the bacterial cell death by inhibiting DNA gyrase (a type II topoisomerase and topoisomerase IV) which helps in DNA replication and repair [2]. Ofloxacin mainly used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, infections of the urethra and cervix (i.e., gonorrhoea), pneumonia, infectious diarrhoea, prostatitis, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, plague, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, bacterial infection of the eye and ear, otitis media when there is a hole in the eardrum, etc. [1-4]. The common side effects associated with it include a headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, seizures, psychosis, tendon rupture, numbness, skin rash, etc. [1]. It may inhibit certain drug metabolizing enzymes and thereby increase blood levels of other drugs such as theophylline, warfarin, cyclosporine, etc. It may show an increase the anticoagulant, cardiotoxicity, and arrhythmias effects when co-administered with drugs such as acenocoumarol, Quinidine barbiturate, dihydroquinidine barbiturate, etc. [4,5]. It has a shorter biological half-life, and its bioavailability is mainly dependent upon the physiological condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is highly soluble in acidic medium and precipitates in alkaline medium thereby losing its solubility [4]. Physicochemical properties of a pharmaceutical compound play a crucial role in its dissolution, absorption, and bioavailability [6].

Many research activities are carrying out throughout the world for the improvement of these properties of the pharmaceutical or nutraceutical compounds in the formulations. In this development, the Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment has a significant impact on the particle size, surface area, crystallite size, and thermal properties of pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compounds [7-11]. The Trivedi Effect® is a natural and lone scientifically established phenomenon in which an individual can harness this inherently intelligent energy from the “Universe” and transfer it anywhere on the planet through the possible mediation of neutrinos [12]. Every living organism possesses a kind of unique, infinite, para-dimensional electromagnetic field surrounding the body, originate from the continuous movements of the charged particles, ions, cells, lymph/blood flow, heart and brain functions etc. in the body known as Biofield (Putative Energy Fields). Biofield Energy Healing Therapies have been reported with significantly beneficial outcomes against various disease conditions [13].

The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend and counted in the energy therapy under Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) category along with Reiki, hypnotherapy, yoga, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, Ayurvedic medicine, etc., that has been accepted by most of the USA people [14,15]. Similarly, the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-consciousness energy healing treatment has been studied scientifically and reported astounding results altering the characteristic properties of the living and non-living object(s), i.e., crops, microbes, live stocks, organic compounds, metals and ceramic, cancer cells, etc. [16-26]. These surprising results motivated to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, and thermal properties of ofloxacin with the help of particle size analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermogravimetric analysis.

Materials and Methods

Chemicals and reagents

Ofloxacin was procured from Sigma Aldrich (USA) and the other chemicals used in the experiments were purchased from India.

Consciousness energy healing treatment strategies

The test sample ofloxacin was divided into the control and the Biofield Energy Treated parts. The treated part of the ofloxacin was received the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely for 3 minutes by a well-known Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi (USA). The control sample did not receive the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment, but, treated with a “sham” healer, who does not have any knowledge about the Biofield Energy Treatment. After the treatment, both the samples were characterized using modern analytical techniques.

Characterization

The PSA, PXRD, DSC, and TGA analysis of ofloxacin were performed. The PSA was performed with the help of Malvern Mastersizer 2000 (the UK) using the wet method [27,28]. The powder XRD analysis of ofloxacin powder sample was performed with the help of Rigaku MiniFlex-II Desktop X-ray diffractometer (Japan) [29,30]. The average size of crystallites was calculated from PXRD data using the Scherrer’s formula (1)

G=kλ/βcosθ (1)

Where G is the crystallite size in nm, k is the equipment constant, λ is the radiation wavelength, β is the full-width at half maximum, and θ is the Bragg angle [31].

Likewise, the DSC analysis of ofloxacin was performed with the help of DSC Q200, TA instruments. The TGA/DTG thermograms of ofloxacin were obtained with the help of TGA Q50 TA Instruments [27,28].

The % change in particle size, surface area, peak intensity, crystallite size, melting point, latent heat, weight loss, and the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin was calculated compared with the control ofloxacin using the following equation 2:

% change=[Treated-Control]/Control×100 (2)

Results and Discussion

Particle size analysis (PSA)

The PSD analysis data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin are presented in Table 1. The particle size values of the control ofloxacin powder sample at d10, d50, d90, and D (4,3) were 2.3μm, 20.32μm, 201.35μm, and 68.76μm, respectively. Similarly, the particle sizes of the treated ofloxacin powder sample at d10,d50,d90, and D (4,3) were 2.55μm, 26.23μm, 229.59μm, and 77.34μm, respectively. In comparison to the control sample, the particle size values in Dahryn’s Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder were significantly increased by 10.96%, 29.09%, 14.03%, and 12.48% at d10, d50, d90, and D (4,3), respectively. Therefore, the specific surface area of Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder (0.947m2/g) was significantly decreased by 8.06% compared with the control sample (1.03m2/g). This improved particle size and decreased surface area might be the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment. The increased particle size of a may help in enhancing the shape, appearance, and flowability of that compound [32,33]. Thus, it is expected that the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder sample might offer better shape, appearance, and flowability compared to the untreated sample, which is very important for the pharmaceutical formulations.

Table 1:Particle size distribution of the control and biofield energy treated ofloxacin.

d10, d50, and d90: Particle diameter corresponding to 10%, 50%, and 90% of the cumulative distribution; D(4,3): the average mass-volume diameter; SSA: Specific Surface Area.


Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis

The diffractograms of the control and Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder showed sharp and intense peaks at Bragg’s angle (2θ) (Figure 1), which indicated that both the samples were crystalline. The control and the treated samples showed the highest peak intensity at 2θ equal to 6.1° (Table 2). The peak intensities of the treated ofloxacin powder were significantly altered from -70.76% to 4.73% compared to the control sample. Overall, the crystallite sizes of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder sample were significantly altered ranging from -70.36% to 314.81% compared to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder (300nm) was significantly increased by 25.22% compared with the control sample (239.58nm).

Figure 1:PXRD diffractograms of the control and biofield energy treated ofloxacin.


Table 2:PXRD data for the control and biofield energy treated ofloxacin.


The significant alterations in the intensities and crystallite sizes indicated a new polymorphic form ofloxacin might have formed due to the Biofield Energy Treatment via neutrino oscillations [12]. The peak intensity of each diffraction face on the crystalline compound changes according to the crystal morphology [34] and alterations in the PXRD pattern provide the proof of polymorphic transitions [35,36]. Different polymorphic forms of pharmaceuticals have the significant effects on the drug performance, such as bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity, because of their thermodynamic and physicochemical properties (i.e., melting point, stability and solubility) are different from the original form [37,38]. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treated ofloxacin would be better in designing more efficacious novel pharmaceutical formulations.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis

The DSC data of the control and Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin are presented in (Table 3). The thermograms of the control and Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin showed the sharp endothermic peak at 276.79 °C and 277.54 °C, respectively (Figure 2), which was closely matched to the reported data [39]. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin was slightly increased by 0.27% compared with the control sample (Table 3). Similarly, the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples showed exothermic peaks at 330.17 °C and 336.07 °C, respectively (Figure 2). The decomposition temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin was also increased by 1.79% compared with the control sample (Table 3).

Figure 2:DSC thermograms of the control and biofield energy treated ofloxacin.


Table 3:DSC data for both control and biofield energy treated samples of ofloxacin.

ΔH: Latent heat of fusion/decomposition.


The latent heat of fusion (ΔHfusion) of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin (119.9J/g) was significantly increased by 13.43% compared with the control sample (105.7J/g) (Table 3). But, the latent heat of decomposition (ΔHdecomposition) of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin (60.39J/g) was significantly decreased by 53% compared with the control sample (128.50J/g) (Table 3). The change in the latent heat of fusion can be attributed to the disrupted molecule chains and the crystal structure [40]. The Trivedi Effect® assumed for the disruption of the molecular chains and crystal structure of ofloxacin, which improved the overall thermal stability of the Biofield Energy Treated sample compared with the control sample.

Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) / differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG)

The control and Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin samples displayed one step of thermal degradation (Figure 3). The total weight loss in the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin was decreased by 4.19% compared with the control sample (Table 4). Hence, the residue amount was significantly increased by 26.97% in the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin compared to the control sample (Table 4). The DTG thermograms of the control and Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin similarly exhibited only one maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) peak (Figure 4). The Tmax of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.99% compared to the control sample (Table 4). Overall, TGA/DTG revealed that the thermal stability of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin was improved significantly compared with the control sample.

Table 4:TGA/DTG data of the control and biofield energy treated samples of ofloxacin.

Tmax=The temperature at which maximum thermal degradation temperature.


Figure 3:TGA thermograms of the control and biofield energy treated ofloxacin.


Figure 4:DTG thermograms of the control and biofield energy treated ofloxacin.


Conclusion

The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) has shown a significant effect on the crystal properties, particle size, surface area, and thermal properties of ofloxacin powder sample were observed. The size of the particles in the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder were significantly increased by 10.96%, 29.09%, 14.03%, and 12.48% at d10, d50, d90, and D (4,3), respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin powder sample was significantly decreased by 8.06% compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated ofloxacin were significantly altered from -70.76% to 4.73% compared to the control sample. Similarly, the crystallite sizes of the treated sample were significantly altered ranging from -70.36% to 314.81% compared to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated ofloxacin powder sample was significantly increased by 25.22% compared with the control sample. The melting and decomposition temperature of the treated ofloxacin was increased compared to the control sample.

The latent heat of fusion and decomposition was significantly altered by 13.43% and -53%, respectively in the treated ofloxacin compared with the control sample. The total weight loss was decreased significantly by 4.19%; however, the residue amount was significantly increased by 26.97% in the treated ofloxacin compared with the control sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of ofloxacin with better shape, appearance, flowability, and thermally stable compared to the control sample. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treated ofloxacin would be very useful to design novel pharmaceutical formulations for the better therapeutic response against urinary tract infections, infections of the urethra and cervix (i.e., gonorrhea), pneumonia, cellulitis, infectious diarrhoea, chronic bronchitis, plague, multidrugresistant tuberculosis, prostatitis, bacterial infection of the eye and ear, otitis media when there is a hole in the eardrum, etc.

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© 2018 Snehasis Jana. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.



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