Crimson Publishers Publish With Us Reprints e-Books Video articles

Full Text

Modern Approaches in Drug Designing

Antioxidant Enzymes Status Among Betel Quid Chewers: A Mini Review

Aniket Adhikari*

Department of Genetics, India

*Corresponding author: Aniket Adhikari, Department of Genetics, Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratishthan (RKMSP), Kolkata, India

Submission: November 25, 2019;Published: December 09, 2019

DOI: 10.31031/MADD.2019.02.000546

ISSN: 2576-9170
Volume2 Issue5


One of the main driving forces are the biochemical reactions, which take place which help to sustain human life within the organelles and cells of the body. Consumption of Smokeless tobacco such as betel quid, areca nut and alcohol, which result in increased free radicals’ production. Free radicals damage the cellular materials which would result in triggering or transforming normal cells into malignant ones. But, the magnitude of such damage is dependent on the body’s defense mechanism, which is mediated by various cellular antioxidants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals are conjectured to be involved in neoplastic transformation Fiaschi AI [1]. ROS at high levels create toxicity to the cell. An imbalance between the production of ROS and the cell’s oxidant capacity creates oxidative stress, which in turn may instigate or promote carcinogenesis in the cell by mutagenesis, cytotoxicity and changes in gene expression Lien et al. [2]. Slaked lime is one of the major ingredients used in betel quid beside of areca nut, catechu, and betel leaf. Aqueous extracts of areca nut and catechu were capable of generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide at pH > 9.5. The areca nutinduced production of ROS was enhanced by Fe2+, Fe3+ and Cu2+, but inhibited by Mn2+.Calcium hydroxide content of slaked lime in the presence of areca nut is a major factor responsible for the formation of ROS which cause oxidative damage in the DNA of buccal mucosa cells of (Betel Quid) BQ chewers Nair et al.[3,4].

BQ chewing is constitutes an important and popular cultural activity in many Asian and Oceanic countries, including India. India has largest betel quid consuming population in the world. It is estimated that among 400 million individuals aged 15 years and above in India, 47% use smokeless tobacco in one or the other form. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are most major enzymatic antioxidant defence system, responsible for scavenging free radicals and nascent oxygen Manoharan et al. [5]. The burst of ROS has been implicated in development of oral cancer in smokeless tobacco chewers. Antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx can directly counterbalance the oxidant attack and protect the cells against DNA damage. Superoxide dismutase, a decisive antioxidant enzyme in aerobic cells; which is responsible for the elimination of superoxide radicals. An overall balance between production and removal of ROS may be more important in various cancers including OSCC (Oral squamous cell carcinoma) Yokoe et al. [6]. In our study we have screened 311 subjects from different areas of Eastern and North Eastern India and also from RKMSP hospital, Kolkata, India. Out of which 61.09% had betel quid chewing habit. We found that Glutathione peroxidases values are higher in healthy control, but Super oxide dismutase values are lower in healthy control. Both data are statistically significant.


  1. Fiaschi AI, Cozzolino A, Ruggiero G, Giorgi G (2005) Gluthione, ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzymes in the tumor tissue and blood of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 9(6): 361-367.
  2. Lien Ai Pham-Huy, He H, Pham-Huy C (2008) Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci 4(2): 89-96.
  3. Nair UJ, Floyd RA, Nair J, Bussachini V, Friesen M, et al. (1987b) Formation of reactive oxygen species and of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA in vitro with betel quid ingredients. Chem Biol Interact 63(2): 157-169.
  4. Nair UJ, Nair J, Friesen MD, Bartsch H, Ohshima H (1995) Ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing. Carcinogenesis 16(5): 1195-1198.
  5. Manoharan S, Kolanjiappan K, Suresh K, Panjamurthy K (2005) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Indian J Med Res 122(6): 529-524.
  6. Yokoe H, Nomura H, Yamano Y, Fushimi K, Sakamoto Y, et al. (2009) Characterization of intracellular superoxide dismutase alterations in premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity: Correlation with lymph node metastasis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 135(11): 1625-1633.

© 2019 Aniket Adhikari. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.