School of Biosciences, Kerala, India
*Corresponding author:Keerthi TR, Professor, School of Biosciences, Kerala, India
Submission: July 29, 2019Published: August 12, 2019
ISSN : 2578-0263Volume3 Issue2
Gut is considered as second brain since it coordinates with all the organs. A physiological change or dysbiosis in the gut affects the body metabolism. A probiotic treatment along with a restricted diet and an appropriate prebiotic can modulate the host functioning. The mechanisms through which the probiotics improves type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes is by modulating insulin resistance, barrier function of gut epithelium, immunomodulation, reducing appetite and upregulating genes for fatty acid breakdown. Fermentation of prebiotics in the gut produces short chain fatty acids which in turn regulates the metabolic pathways by interacting with various receptors and modulating the downstream pathways. The studies reported till date reveals that a synbiotic therapy can be an alternative as well as preventive medicine for lifestyle diseases especially diabetes and obesity.
Keywords: Obesity; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Probiotics and prebiotics; Gut microbiota, Diet
Abbreviations: T1D: Type 1 Diabetes; T2D: Type 2 Diabetes; LPS: Lipopolysaccharides; TLR: Toll Like Receptor; GLP: Glucagon Like Peptide; PAMP: Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns; GPR: G Protein Coupled Receptor; GLUT: Glucose Transporter; BMI: Body Mass Index; VFA: Visceral Fat Area; SCFA: Short Chain Fatty Acid, ITF: Inulin Type Fructan