Fozia Noreen*, Maria Tariq, Fareeha Ashfaq, Aiman Javeed, Duaa Tahira and Ali Sahi
Department of Chemistry, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: Fozia Noreen, Department of Chemistry, Pakistan
Submission: July 23, 2021 Published: September 23, 2021
ISSN 2578-0093Volume7 Issue2
COVID-19 pandemic has affected the society on social and economic grounds. Society is suffering from a trauma by health emergency, sudden fall of economy and complex changes in social behaviors because of a social isolation adopted by governments to restrict rapid flow of disease. This review covers few aspects related to global issues resulted from COVID-19 outbreak to highlight the main points and to prepare society for incoming situations in near future in order to design short- and long-term strategies for any sudden social shock.
Keywords: Health emergency; COVID-19; Trauma
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current new virulent disease rising its transmission and fatality with each passing day in worldwide population. COVID-19 is emerged as a respiratory infection and a suspicious origin of animals and transmission to human in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It is a pandemic disease started of pneumonia in the city of Wuhan, Hubei province in China. Mostly it affects the people of over age and with weak immune system and heart patients with high blood pressure. Symptoms may include, respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, breathing difficulties, fatigue and sore throat etc. Later this, the virus was transmitted from person to person through droplets and contacts. The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China have taken immediate action to reduce transmission and fatality associated with COVID-19 as minimum as possible. However, action has failed to stop transmission of COVID-19 from China to other countries [1-3]. This COVID-19 majorly affects lungs, which cause pneumonia and further damages kidney, heart, liver, etc., due to failure in the defensive mechanism (less immunity). COVID-19 is a family of coronaviruses (CoVs) that are phenotypically and genotypic ally diverse. CoVs are enveloped viruses containing single standard positive-sense RNA that belongs to Coronaviridae family of the other Coronaviridae subfamily which can cause illness in birds, mammals, and humans . Sudden explosion and rapid transmission of COVID-19 pandemic caused global emergency putting a full stop on all social, academic and economic activities. Community was imprisoned at homes to save their lives from this infection. During this social isolation they had faced a lot of social, academic and economic crises. Purpose of review is to highlight these issues for future prospective of sudden emergencies. In this as aspect some areas affected by this trauma are given below:
We know as coronavirus is increasing rapidly across the world, it is making fear, worry and concern for all the population including children’s, all the people and specially hospital workers. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems, and ultimately leading to pneumonia. The workers in hospital are more likely to have the traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and restlessness. They are away from their own families just because of their duty. Professional health care workers have a personal connection to patients. In some cases, emotional disturbance was reported from the range 30% to 50%. Also, the cases for suicide and depression were higher. As this pandemic has been increased the tension and stress for the doctor is increased. This involves working in conditions of high demand or low effort, long shift work and shifts. Their responsibilities have been increased due to their work and home routines. Social support and personal judgment are important factors for healthcare worker that is a person belief in his or her ability to succeed in a situation. Hospital workers reported high levels of distress. They have a dual impact of stress at work and home including social disconnection and isolation. Further the female nurses cannot meet their own children due to their tough duty. However, the purpose of this study is to use data collected from hospital-based health care workers to know about the relationship of their job roles, care for children, patient, less sleep, and psychological distress over time .
Covid-19 has affected the life day to day. This pandemic has affected millions of people. A lot of people are sick and being killed due to the spread of this disease. This is a new viral disease affecting the humans for the first time, that’s why vaccines are not yet available. Manufacturing of essential goods is slowing down. Supply chain of the products is disturbed due to covid-19. National and international business face much loss due to covid-19. Poor cash flow in the market is also happening due to covid-19. Unemployment also increased during this pandemic. Faculty and staff hiring has been suspended at some of the most prestigious universities in the world, in many cases for a year. There is no vaccine for fear and economic insecurity.
Every country facing economic issues and become economically weak.it will take years to retain the previous and strong economic position. Poor countries become more and more poor. Industries close and no trade of any products which weak the economy of the country. Due to the closure of industries, there is a high rate increase of poverty . E-Commerce includes online selling and buying of products or any kind of goods. During covid-19 there is huge increase in e-commerce business. During lockdown and social distancing people prefer online shopping. Stay-at-home orders and consumer concerns about exposure to the virus led people to order goods online and have them shipped to their homes with increased frequency. E-commerce has increased the buyers in developed countries even in developing countries. Due to e-commerce, there is a closure of many companies and industries. People get their order at their doorsteps during this severe pandemic condition. E-commerce become more popular even in under developing countries. Almost everyone has internet facilities and during this pandemic people avoid gathering and grocery stories. Every kind of product is available on internet, so most people use e-commerce .
The coronavirus disease has affected the global and Pakistani economy. Many small, micro and medium Business and company are the victims of this Covid-19. Many Enterprises are facing many problems for example less product demand, cancelled orders, material shortage, transportation problems etc. We know that many large businesses are also being affected by this virus but in case of these small, micro-Enterprises they do not possess sufficient resources both financial and management responsibilities. This small business cannot bear delay for a longer time of span. Therefore, many small companies/businesses are running out of stock and will be hard to operate. These businesses are spread all over the Pakistan showing the major portion of agriculture, manufacturing wholesale and trade. Due to this Covid-19 virus and the lockdowns these businesses are very affected. The impact of the disease on society and economy can be witnessed from the lockdown of cities all over the world, airlines bans and the slowdown of economy. The Covid-19 cases are rapidly increasing day by day creating more problems for such Business and many other tasks. It has also been observed that pandemic outbreak may cause global foreign to shrink by 5%-15%. Hence on the basis of these current situation the global crisis will be worse day by day. Many workers have lost their jobs. Controlling the COVID-19 outbreak will restore the economy, but the risk of financial stress is very high. Also, the poverty is going to be increased by around 11 million people .
During this pandemic there is a huge increase in the income of these online software companies. The main reason for this increase in the economy for this industry is the increased demand for software and social media platforms such as Google Hangouts, Whatsapp Video call, Zoom, and Microsoft Teams. All these teleconferencing tools help the people who are in quarantine to stay in touch with their family members as well as have conference meetings and work at the same time. The economy will also blossom because, during these crises, people understood the importance of the internet and technology as this is helping us stay safe and helping in the communication between the doctors and the public. Technology is also used to manage the smart lockdown system in many countries [5,7-14].
Covid affect many food items and their prices also. During covid hunger keeps rising. When people suffer from hunger that means they don’t meet their food requirement and due to hunger their immune system become weak and weak. Due to weak immune system, they are unable to fight with covid. Covid bacteria can attack and easily. According to a research of World Bank this pandemic can push about 100 million people intro extreme poverty, some food commodity prices are increasing mainly because of local logistical problems or import difficulties. Pandemic affect the supply and demand for food. Lockdown bans, restrictions on the movement of goods. Movement restrictions have reduced the availability of many labors and many harvesting and agriculture. COVID-19 affecting food systems through contaminated imports has had negative consequences for industry .
As the COVID-19 increases rapidly, the whole world adopted lockdown activity with restriction of human mobility. The imposition of quarantine stopped all the commercial activity that greatly affects the various important environmental parameters which directly connected to human health. As all the types of social, economic, industrial and urbanization activity suddenly shut off, nature takes the advantages and showed improvement in the quality of air, cleaner rivers, less noise pollution, undisturbed and calm wildlife. This research aims to discuss the COVID-19 effect on the global environment. During quarantine all industries remain close and it’s the best time for the recovery of ozone layers. Covid remain only positive impact on ozone layer. During covid quarantine all the economic activity remain close due to which there is decline in CO2 emission and hole in ozone layer closed .
As industries, transportation and companies have closed down, it has brought a sudden drop of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions. Compared with this time of last year, levels of air pollution have reduced by nearly 50% because of measures taken to control the virus. This reduction is considered due to the closure of most industries because due to closure there is no smog or any kind of waste material in the environment which causes to reduce air pollution. Due to quarantine, there is no movement of transport, and which is major cause of air pollution. Oil demand has also dropped .
Lockdown and social distancing measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to closure s of schools, training institutes and higher education facilities in most countries. As schools, colleges and universities have been closed to cope with the global pandemic, students, parents and educators around the globe have felt the unexpected ripple effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. While governments, frontline workers and health officials are doing their best slowing down the outbreak, education systems are trying to continue imparting quality education for all during these difficult times. Students are taking stress at home due to work pressure of schools. Students have many issues, many can take no online classes due to unstable internet connection, due to poor financial. The use of suitable and relevant pedagogy for online education may depend on the expertise and exposure to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for both educators and the learners. As all students’ assignments and examinations are carried out from home, it is challenging for educators to find the authenticity of the work and the actual learning taking place. Moreover, many parents guide and support their children during their learning process, and the extent and degree of support varies greatly. Grading of students is another area of study as no proper criteria are developed and effectively used .
As the Covid-19 has great potential effects all over the world this virus also affects the travel and tourism industry throughout the world. Using PSVAR (panel structural vector auto-regression), from 1995 to 2019 the impacts of overall pandemical situations in 185 countries is nothing in front of impacts of Covid-19. Past pandemic crises operated mostly through idiosyncratic shocks’ channels, exposing domestic tourism sectors to large adverse shocks. Once there are zero infection cases, inbound arrivals revived immediately. But this pandemic Covid 19 has a prolonged (up to one to two years) and have great impacts on travelling industies. Private and public policy support must be coordinated to assure capacity building and operational sustainability of the travel tourism sector during 2020-2021. Tourism managers must be carefully assessing the pandemic effects of Covid 19 on business and should deal with great experience to the loss during this crisis. Private and public policy support must be coordinated to sustain pre-COVID-19 operational levels of the tourism and travel sector [12,13].
In 2019 December, a novel corona virus has severe respiratory syndrome. In patient out of 100, 33 percent are suffering from acute respiratory distress, renal failure, severe pneumonia, etc. Firstly, there was no any proper treatment or vaccination for the disease, but now after many experiences, scientist has been made some effective vaccinations for this. But still the cancer patients are at great risk of acute Covid-19 infection, because of their weak immune system due to cancer or cancer treatment. This is a very big challenge to treat these patients from Covid that are at high risk. Scientist should pay a great attention on these patients because these are already suffering from big disease. There is need of good quality vaccination for these patients. Precaution should also be practiced by these patients and should give awareness to the cancer patients.
In the current situation of COVID-19, India has suffered a lot at the moment. And it has taken a heavy loss. Last year, the Indian government imposed a severe lockdown on the disease, but this time the government took into account the economic situation of the people. But because of this, the disease spread far and wide. On May 6, 2019, it was revealed that 84% of the people in India are suffering from economic hardship due to COVID-19. And if we talk about 2021, the situation in India at the moment is very dangerous. Due to the current lockdown, the economic situation in India is very difficult at the moment. Because most people in India are poor, the government is doing everything possible to help them. At present, poverty is rampant in India. India is facing many problems at the moment. Such as shortage of food, medicines, ventilators and oxygen. Oxygen deficiency is the biggest problem at the moment. Patients do not even have oxygen to breathe. On which all countries including Pakistan are sending aid to India but still the current situation is not satisfactory. At present, more than half of the country’s population is fighting the disease in one way or another. Besides, Bollywood industry or sports have all been badly affected. Tournaments like IPL have been postponed. Judging by the situation, it is clear that India will not be able to make up for these losses for ten years (News Channels).
Per reports of till date COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 has been modified itself in a new form. The virus unlike to its previous killing properties worldwide, now a days scientists observed that virus has a stronger binding affinity with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein, due to which the virus gains the entry point in its host. Recent reports reveals that this virus not just a lung infecting virus, it also affects human brain. Covid positive patients have been reported with severe or mild neurological manifestation i-e agues, anosmia, etc. So, keeping in mind that we should gain more awareness about the virus because of its more and severe affects. Scientist and medical staff should also need to up their games to make more valuable strategies according to its pandemic situation. We provide a brief outline of the currently known neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and discuss some probable ways to design therapeutic strategies to overcome the present global crisis . World Health organization (WHO) declared the Covid-19 pandemic back in March 2020. This Virus has claimed more than 2.5 million lives with millions of cases which are confirmed by the laboratory test (2021). This Pandemic has affected almost everything from the way of living to death. We cannot meet our loved ones as before we used to, all the study is shifted online, Business have been stopped. Very Harsh Restrictions have been implemented on us by the government, but this is for our safety. But beside these all Covid-19 vaccine is helping us in these situations.
Many scientists also including WHO claim this vaccine to develop immunity in natural body and to survive against Coronavirus. Up till now a total of seven COVID-19 vaccines have been developed and available across the globe. Research has demonstrated that the Modena and the mRNA-based Pfizer vaccines are 94-95% effective. The effectiveness of vaccine here means that people having vaccine have 95% lower risk of COVID-19 that means with vaccines the chances of virus are lowered than without having it. However, some of the vaccines also have proven to be effective against the acute syndrome coronavirus 2. Thus, all people must have dose of vaccine especially above 60 and now government has also allowed for the age 40. The people with low background must also have the accessibility of this vaccine. People must have education on having vaccine so that they can return to normal life in this way world will be able to overcome Pandemic .
© 2021 Fozia Noreen. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.