Department of Oral Medicine and Oral Oncology, Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences, India
*Corresponding author: Shrihari TG, Assistant professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Oral Oncology, Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru-562157, India
Submission: April 13, 2018;Published: April 17, 2018
ISSN 2578-0093Volume3 Issue1
Chronic psychological stress induced release of CRH (corticotrophic releasing hormone) from hypothalamus activates HPA-axis (hypothalamo pituitary adrenal axis) through autonomic nervous system release cortisol, ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic releasing hormone), and noradrenaline neuropeptides. These neuropeptides activates inflammatory mediators such as IL-1 β, TNF-α, IL-6, pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 inflammatory mediator from inflammatory cells (6-9).
Chronic psychological stress mediated release of neuropeptide’s such as cortisol, ACTH, and noradrenaline results in altered oral and gut micro flora consists of bacterias, viruses, fungi, protozoa, known as dysbiosis [1-5]. These altered microflora is recognized by PAMP (pathogen associated molecular patterns) belongs to toll like receptors (TLR) present on immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes activate NFkB a key transcription factor involved in conversion of Th1 to Th2 lymphocytic type, Th17 cells involved in immunomodulation and chronic inflammation [6-8]. Tregs (regulatory T cells ) alteration otherwise involved in self tolerance and immune homeostasis, activation of matrix metalloproteases (mmps) involved in tissue damage and cell proliferation by growth factors such as EGF , VEGF, FGF, all these changes leads to autoimmune diseases.
© 2018 Shrihari TG. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.