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Experimental Techniques in Urology & Nephrology

A Review of Common Methods Used to Exclude Infection in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

  • Open or Close Kiren Gill1* and Govind Dhillon2

    1Department of Medicine, University College London, UK

    2Southampton Medical School, Southampton, UK

    *Corresponding author: Kiren Gill, Department of Medicine, Centre for Nephrology, University College London, London, UK,

Submission: October 04, 2017; Published: November 03, 2017

DOI: 10.31031/ETUN.2017.01.000505

ISSN: 2578-0395
Volume1 Issue1


Lower urinary tract symptoms form a significant burden for many patients. A key step in management of such patients includes the exclusion of urinary tract infection. In patients with classic symptoms of acute infection including frequency and dysuria history alone is sufficient. However in patients with non-dysuric lower urinary tract symptoms, we rely on commonly used investigations to exclude infection. These tests include the midstream urine culture, microscopy of urinary and urinary dipstick tests. Our understanding of urinary infection has advanced, however the tests we use in clinically practice do not exclude urinary tract infection. This review explores the role and inadequacies in the current tests used to exclude urinary infection in patients that present with urinary infection.

Abbreviations: LUTS: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms; UTI: Urinary Tract Infection; PPV: Positive Predictive Value; NPV: Negative Predictive Valve; CSU : Catheter Specimen of Urine

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