Shilov MP* and Dimitriev AV
State Natural Reserve “Prisurskiy”, Russia
*Corresponding author: Shilov MP, State Natural Reserve “Prisurskiy”, Russia
Submission: March 16, 2021Published: March 18, 2021
ISSN 2578-0336 Volume8 Issue1
In the current century, Americans presented the world with «Chicken Broth for the Soul»
for all occasions of life. This precedent has real prospects to spread to other spheres of life
and become the «Chicken broth for the soul, body and world», the basis for the formation
of biosphere-noosphere civilization. It will save the world from the real threats of the global
environmental crisis, which are dangerous in all continents of the world: the climate is
changing; earthquakes and volcanoes are more frequent; on the verge of exhaustion of oil
and gas resources; many species of plants and animals disappear catastrophically; mass
dangerous diseases of people began.
The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in 2020-2021 clearly demonstrates that Humanity can really experience a global catastrophe now, which will be extremely difficult to prevent. In such pandemics, the deaths of tens of millions of people will be almost inevitable. In addition, they will entail the destruction of the economy. In order to avoid an environmental crisis, or to quickly emerge from it with its sharp manifestations, it is important to carry out all activities and technological processes with the least waste of natural resources, funds, energy, time and labor in order to preserve the biosphere and form the noosphere, and ultimately form a biosphere-noosphere civilization (BNC).
The scientific foundations of the BNC were laid in the 20th century by the works of Eduard Leroy, professor of mathematics at the University of Sorbon, geologist Teyar de Chardin, Catholic professor and Russian academician V.I. Vernadsky.
The formation of the BNC is still fragmented, but in some places its most effective directions are successfully implemented. This is:
A. Ecological farming with cultivation of perennial cereals, fruit and berry crops and
other food crops. 5% of true farmers are really able to feed the rest of the population in
limited areas and free up huge territories for the formation of BNC;
B. New cultures very valuable in all biochemical indicators of the 21st century (amaranth - a unique gift of the ancient peoples of South America - monks and Aztecs), as well as fundamentally new ways of consuming seeds in the form of seedlings, which at times increases their nutritional and therapeutic value at a minimum additional cost;
C. Forests - perennial, multi-tiered, sustainable agro-and forest systems. They consist of different types of trees, bushes, low shrubs and herbs with high participation of fruit and berry, food, officinal and other useful plants and mushrooms. All of them are in symbiosis with each other and the environment, in the optimal interaction of producers, consulates and reducents, are distinguished by high stability, stability and self-renewal. Forest sediments with natural flora are an element of the biosphere, with cultural flora - the noosphere.
Ancient forms of forestry arose during the period of gathering in Africa (Morocco), South and Southeast Asia (Vietnam) and America (Mexico, Guatemala) with the selection of the most productive forms by humans and the cultivation of fruit and berry trees, shrubs and crops near housing (swamp and river agriculture Aztec). Kandian forest gardens in Sri Lanka are known. Family gardens of Mexico, home gardens in Kerala (South India) in Nepal, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and others are close to forest plantations.
In Russia and in the near abroad, forestry was actively
developing in regions with a rich variety of fruit and berry plants
in natural forest plantations: in the Caucasus, Tien Shan, in
Crimea, Ukraine, Siberia, and the Far East. Currently, it is actively
developing in Western Europe. In the northern Caucasus, in
Cherkessia (Adygea), forestry flourished for several centuries. Folk
breeders selected the best fruit plants in the forests and propagated
them. The oldest forest plantations include the chairas of Crimea
- multifunctional forest plantations: garden, hayfields; pasture for
sheep, goats and cows, the place of harvesting fruits, berries, nuts,
firewood and installation of bee. In the Urals and Siberia in the
XVII-XIX centuries, the local population cultivated wild plantings of
Siberian cedar (Siberian pine), cutting down associated rocks and
creating near-village cedars.
Forest plantations are the most effective and low-cost way to restore betland land, develop cattle and preserve land temporarily excluded from use; source of various products: fruits, honey, juice, edible greens, mushrooms, wood, etc.; a promising model for creating ancestral estates with an optimal, favorable human habitat, a new type of specially protected natural areas (SPNA). The custom regime of plantations with optimal collection times (during the period of complete ripening) and rational seized volumes of fruits (not more than 70%) will ensure their natural self-renewal. Forests as a category of SPNA are very promising for business and ecology, since the main principle of their functioning is to «protect and use». They will ensure the formation of BNСs, profit-making and the preservation of natural and cultural biodiversity.
It is important not only to form the noosphere in human habitats and economic activities, but also to preserve a significant part of the biosphere in its original form, not altered by human activity. According to Russian scientists N.F. Reimers and F.R. Stielmark (1978) in the tundra and forest tundra, natural ecosystems should occupy 98% of its territory, in the north of the taiga - 80-90%, in the south of the taiga - 45-50%, in the zone of broad-leaved forests and forest-steppe - 30-35%, in the steppe zone - 35-40%. By adhering to these percentages, forests, as one of the categories of protected areas, will restore the human-disturbed biosphere on billions of hectares of the planet.
The construction of nosystems on the site of man-made deserts and disturbed barren lands of the poor land is a very complex, expensive, painful, but necessary and urgent process. In some countries, it is already being successfully solved (in Turkey, New Zealand, Bhutan, etc.). Only with the disappearance of anthropogenic deserts and bedland will the global biospherenoosphere system be sustainable.
Some of the world’s small peoples, particularly Bhutanese, have made significant strides in this direction. On the initiative of the former King of Bhutan and his heir Jigm Khesar, Namgyal Wangchuk, a program of «Gross National Happiness» was developed:
A. Conservation of nature and the environment (SPNA
already occupy 35% of the country);
B. Preservation of cultural and spiritual heritage (in fact, formation of the noosphere);
C. An honest government that successfully resolves these problems;
D. Equal socio-economic development for all, which ensures «the kinship of people of all races and religions». All Bhutanese are happy and all honor and idolize the king’s. In fact, the BNC is formed in the country, which the Bhutanese came to independently.
The reality of all of the above is based on the low cost of funds, energy and labor when laying forests (except when they are created on the inconvenience and lands of betland), and especially when they are maintained, on their high natural self-renewal, stability, resistance to diseases and pests, as well as to fluctuations in weather and climatic conditions. This is one of the most real ways to preserve flora and fauna, biodiversity in general, since in forest plantations the co-evolution of man and nature is fully realized, BSC is formed. The lives of millions of people are connected to the forest. Most of them use his gifts. And the best form of forest management is forest plantations. It is necessary to use all possibilities so that forest plantations bloom in phasends and in cottages, in estates and estates of families, in natural forests, on abandoned lands and betland, from tundra to moist tropical forests and high in the mountains!
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