Crimson Publishers Publish With Us Reprints e-Books Video articles

Full Text

Environmental Analysis & Ecology Studies

Fresh/River Water Zooplankton in Bangladesh: A Critical Review

Md Simul Bhuyan1,2*, Muhammad Sharif AS3, Md Mohidul Islam4, Mojumder IA2,5, Monika Das6,7 and Md Shafiqul Islam1

1Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Bangladesh

2Bangladesh Research Consultancy Firm, Bangladesh

3Bangladesh Oceanographic Research Institute, Bangladesh

4Marine Fisheries and Technology Station, Bangladesh

5Department of Zoology, Bangladesh

6,7Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh

*Corresponding author: Md. Simul Bhuyan, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Bangladesh

Submission: March 04, 2020Published: September 11, 2020

DOI: 10.31031/EAES.2020.07.000658

ISSN 2578-0336
Volume7 Issue2


This study was conducted in 2020 to find out the total identified fresh/river water zooplankton in Bangladesh. This review was carried out based on the secondary data. Data were collected from different published journals and websites. Images of every species were collected from different websites since their image cannot be download from PDF and some of the publications only stated name. In the present study, a total of 260 zooplankton species were recorded in fresh/river water. Few species were identified in the larvae and egg stage. Zooplankton is an important part of the aquatic ecosystem that formulate the food chain and food web. There is very limited research on freshwater zooplankton in Bangladesh. Most of the study identified up to the Order level and unpublished. The findings of the present study suggested that it is very necessary to identify the freshwater zooplankton in species-level with a very clear image. This will be a great resource for the conservation of the river or freshwater ecosystem.

Keywords: Freshwater; Zooplankton; Identification; Ecosystem; Bangladesh


Zooplankton is microscopic organisms that drift in water due to the wave action of water. Zooplankton is mainly visible in the pelagic zone of ponds, lakes, rivers, and oceans where light enters. They have no strong swimming organ-like fin in fish [1]. That’s why they are unable to swim freely like fish and they have relied on the wave or current to swim [2]. Zooplankton act as a base of food chains and food webs in freshwater ecosystems since they are solely liable for all secondary production [1]. Moreover, some of them are known as indicators of ecological variations [3]. Zooplankton is now subjected to the effect of the global climate change phenomenon and its long-term and wide profound effect [4].

Directly or indirectly omnivorous and carnivorous fishes rely on zooplankton for their food [5]. Zooplankton excretes organic matters and provides large quantities of protein in water. These nutrients are required for the development of different organs of fish that promote rapid growth [6]. Zooplankton regarded as the ideal food source for brood fishes. Carps fish larvae and white fish (Mullet) larvae mostly feed on zooplankton [7]. Zooplankton is the main food item of Xenentodon cancila and while Cirrhina reba’s feed mainly constitutes of zooplankton [8]. About 82% of the food item of Anabas testudineus [9], 32% of Notoptrus notoptrus [10], 23% of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, 47% of Catla catla [11], 6.37% of Labeo rohita [11], 24.19% of Oreochromis nilotica [12], 38.5% of the Rohtee cotio [13] and 30% of Mystus vittatus [14].

Identification of zooplankton is crucial since it is very difficult to forecast the effect of environmental changes if taxonomic information is unknown [15-18]. The taxonomic along with diversity status information will help scientific programmers’ to design a new program [19-20]. Furthermore, zooplankton plays a significant role to develop the fisheries sector and increase the production level by determining the water quality and natural productivity. The seasonal variation of zooplankton composition is also a strong tool in this regard.

The effect of physico-chemical parameters of water in the species composition, abundance, and diversity of zooplankton determine the fish distribution [21]. Unfortunately, limited information is available on the seasonal variation of zooplankton and their relationship with the physico-chemical factors of water. Therefore, the zooplankton study is essential to know the dynamic of the fishery. Consequently, the present review study was conducted to know the total freshwater zooplankton species identified in Bangladesh so far.

Materials and Methods

Authors collected data from different databases or google search, using the keywords “Zooplankton in Bangladesh” or “Zooplankton in freshwater of Bangladesh” or “Zooplankton in river of Bangladesh” or “Taxonomic study of zooplankton in Bangladesh” or “Taxonomic checklist of zooplankton in Bangladesh” or “Distribution of zooplankton in river of Bangladesh” or “Zooplankton diversity in river in Bangladesh” or “Heavy metals in edible seaweed” or “Trace metals in seaweed” or “Distribution of zooplankton in freshwater of Bangladesh” or “Zooplankton diversity in freshwater in Bangladesh”, “Zooplankton in pond water of Bangladesh” or “Zooplankton in beel of Bangladesh” etc. Few images were not found for some species. 259-260 no. species images were taken from the authors another publication that’s why there are no references in image link sources.

Fresh/river water zooplankton status in Bangladesh

Zooplankton plays a significant role in aquatic ecosystems [22] by regulating the nutrient cycle and transportation of nutrients in lakes, rivers, estuary, and seas [23-26]. Physico-chemical factors and nutrient status of water control zooplankton biomass. Substantial research carried out in temperate and polar waters [27]. George [28], Krishnamurthy & Visvesvara [29], Sreenivasan [30] and Michael [31] conducted research on the ecology and zooplankton of India. Very few works done in Bangladesh by Das & Bhuiyan [32], Islam & Mendes [33], Khan et al. [34], Ali et al. [35], Zafar [36], Patra & Azadi [37], Bhuiyan et al. [38], Bhuiyan & Nessa [8,39-42]. In the present study, a total of 260 zooplankton species were recorded from freshwater or river water of Bangladesh. These species listed in Table 1 along with the image.


Some studies were found that worked up to a group or order level. The authors worked on the species level zooplankton species [43-48]. Most of the articles did not add images of the identified species and some added but could not be used either for copyright or for the quality of the image. Rather, authors used google search images from different websites citing the image link. Some species spelling was not found in google search; the author corrected the spelling [49-56]. There are some work may be done by different University students and Professors, but the authors used only published articles. Finally, this review study did not get any funding to conduct this research [57-61].

Table 1:


Zooplankton plays a vital role in the freshwater/ river ecosystem. They provide food and nutrients to the organisms belong to the upper stages of the food chain. They have a great impact on nutrient recycling. This review study will help the researchers to carry out the further taxonomic and advanced study on fresh/river water zooplankton.


  1. Roy U, Shaha BK, Mazhabuddin K, Haqueand MF, Sarower MG (2010) Study on the diversity and seasonal variation of zooplankton in a brood pond, Bangladesh. Marine Res Aqua 1(1): 30-37.
  2. Zheng Z (1984) Marine Planktology, China Ocean Press. Beijing, China.
  3. Sipkay C, Kiss KT, Vadadi Fulop C, Hufnagel L (2009) Trends in research on the possible effects of climate change concerning aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the modelling approach. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 7(2): 171-198.
  4. Sharif ASM, Hoque MN (2017) A preliminary taxonomic checklist of Zooplankton in the Karnaphuli River Estuary. Discovery 53: 133-146.
  5. Alam AKMN, Islam MA, Mollah MFA, Haque MS (1987) States of zooplankton newly constructed pond and their relation to some meteorological and limnologic factors. Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries 10: 83-88.
  6. Bardach EJ, Ryther HJ and Melarny OW (1972) The farming and husbandry of fresh water and marine organisms, John-Willey and Sons, Inc., New York, USA.
  7. Dewan S, Ali M, Islam MA (1977) Study on the size and patterns of feeding of fries and fingerlings of three major carps. Viz. Labeo rohita (Ham), Catla catla (Ham), Cirrhina mrigala (Ham). Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture 2: 223-228.
  8. Bhuiyan AS, Nessa Q (1998a) Seasonal variation in the occurrence of some Zooplankton in a fish pond. Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries Research 2(2): 201-203.
  9. Shafi M, Mustafa G (1976) Observation on some aspects of biology of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 4: 21-28.
  10. Mustafa G, Ahmed ATA (1979) Food of Notopterus notopterus (Pallas). Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 7: 7-14.
  11. Ali M, Islam MA (1981) Studies on the plankton of a lake in Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus. Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries 10: 82-88.
  12. Islam AKMN, Haroon AKY, Zaman KM (1974) Limnological studies of the river Buriganga. Dhaka University Studies 22: 99-111.
  13. Ali MM, Islam MA, Habib MAB (1985) Monthly abundance of zooplankton and correlation of various dominant species and nauplius of zooplankton with some water characters in a pond. University Journal of Zoology of Rajshahi University 4: 42-49.
  14. Bhuiyan AS, Haque A (1984) Seasonal variation in the percentage of composition of the food of Xenentodon cancila. Rajshahi University Journal of Zoology 7: 33-36.
  15. Danielsen F (1997) Stable environments and fragile communities: does history determine the resilience of avian rainforest communities to habitat degradation? Biodiversity & Conservation 6: 423-433.
  16. Fjeldsaa J, Lovett JC (1997) Biodiversity and environmental stability. Biodiversity & Conservation 6: 315-323.
  17. Gray JS (2001) Marine diversity: the paradigms in patterns of species richness examined. Scientia Marina 65(Suppl 2): 41-56.
  18. Piraino S, Fanelli G, Boero F (2002) Variability of species ‘roles in marine communities: change of paradigms for conservation priorities. Marine Biology 140: 1067-1074.
  19. Agosti D, Johnson NF (2002) Taxonomists need better access to published data. Nature 417: 222.
  20. Godfray CHJ (2002) Challenges for taxonomy. Nature 417: 17-19.
  21. Ahsan DA, Kabir AKMN, Rahman MM, Mahabub S, Yesmin R, et al. (2012) Plankton composition, abundance and diversity in hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) migratory rivers of Bangladesh during spawning season. Dhaka University Journal of Biological Science 21(2): 177-189.
  22. Honggang Z, Baoshan C, Zhiming Z, Xiaoyun F (2012) Species diversity and distribution for zooplankton in the intertidal wetlands of the Pearl River estuary, China. Procedia Environmental Sciences 13: 2383-2393.
  23. Zhou SC, Jin BS, Guo L, Qin HM, Chu TJ, et al. (2009) Spatial distribution of zooplankton in the intertidal marsh creeks of the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Estuarine. Coastal and Shelf Science 85(3): 399-406.
  24. Paturej E (2008) Assessment of the trophic state of a restored urban lake based on zooplankton community structure and zooplankton-related indices. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences 23: 440-449.
  25. de Puelles MLF, Valencia J, Vicente L (2004) Zooplankton variability and climatic anomalies from 1994 to 2001 in the Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean). ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 492-500.
  26. Liss WJ, Larson GL, Deimling EA, Ganio LM, Hoffman RL, et al. (1998) Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of diaptomid copepods in highelevation lakes in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Hydrobiologia 379: 63-75.
  27. Costlow J (1971) Plankton and productivity in the oceans. Oxford, UK.
  28. George MG (1966) Comparative Plankton ecology of five fish tanks in Delhi, India. Hydrobiologia 27: 81-108.
  29. Krisnamurthy KP, Visvesvara G (1966) Hydrobiological studies in Gandhisagar. (Jumma Tank). Seasonal variation in plankton (1961-1962). Hydrobiolologia 27: 501-514.
  30. Sreenivasan A (1967) The Limnology of fish production in two ponds in Chinglipat (Madras). Hydrobiologia 32: 131-144.
  31. Michael RG (1968) Studies on the zooplankton of a tropical fishpond. Hydrobiologia 32: 47-68.
  32. Das NG, Bhuiyan AL (1974) Limnoplankton of some inland waters of Dhaka city. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 2: 27-42.
  33. Islam AKMN, Mendes F (1976) Limnological studies of a Jheel in Sher-E-Bangla Nagar. Dhaka University Studies 24: 63-71.
  34. Khan YSA, Salam AMA, Ahmed MK (1978) Cladocera of the river Buriganga, Dacca, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 6: 73-83.
  35. Ali S, Chowdhury A, Roy AR (1980) Ecology and seasonal abundance of zooplankton in a pond in Tongi Dhaka. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 8: 41-49.
  36. Zafar M (1986) Study on Zooplankton of Satkhira in the vicinity of Aquaculture Farms with special reference to Penaeid post larvae. M.Sc. Thesis. IMS Univ Ctg. p. 238.
  37. Patra RWR, Azadi MA (1987) Ecological studies on the planktonic organisms of the Halda River. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 15: 109-123.
  38. Bhuiyan AS, Nahar Q, Islam MN (1997) Physico-chemical condition in relation to meteorological condition of a fish pond in Rajshahi. Rajshahi University Journal of Zoology 16: 85-88.
  39. Bhuiyan AS, Nessa Q (1998b) A quantitative study of zooplankton in relation to the physicochemical conditions of a freshwater fish pond of Rajshahi. Rajshahi University Journal of Zoology 17: 29-37.
  40. Akther S, Ashaduzzaman, Hossain MJ (2015) Abundance of Zooplankton in Ramsagar-dighi, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 43: 303-312.
  41. Biswas BC, Panigrahi AK (2015) Ecology and Zooplankton Diversity of a Wetland at Jhenidah District Bangladesh. International Journal for Innovative Research in Science and Technology 1: 246-249.
  42. de Magny GC, Mozumder PK, Grim CJ, Hasan NA, Naser MN, et al. (2011) Role of zooplankton diversity in Vibrio cholerae population dynamics and in the incidence of cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 6125-6132.
  43. Parvez MA, Uddin MM, Islam MK, Kibria MM (2019) Physicochemical and Biological Monitoring of Water Quality of Halda River, Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education 14: 169-181.
  44. Haque MA, Nabi MR, Billah MM, Asif A, Rezowan M, et al. (2018) Effect of water parameters on temporal distribution and abundance of zooplankton at Kaptai lake reservoir, Rangamati, Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 4: 389-399.
  45. Bashar MA, Basak SS, Uddin KB, Islam AKMS, Mahmud Y (2015) Seasonal Variation of Zooplankton Population with Reference to Water Quality of Kaptai Lake, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Research Publications Journal 1: 127-133.
  46. Shil J, Ghosh AK, Rahaman SMB (2013) Abundance and diversity of zooplankton in semi intensive prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farm. Springer Plus 2: 183.
  47. Ahmed T, Hossain MRA, Rahman BMS, Hasan SJ, Hosain ME (2013) Comparison of Physico-Chemical Features, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton and Fish Production between Periphyton Based and Control Monoculture System. International Journal of Business, Social and Scientific Research 1: 37-43.
  48. Hossain S, Rahman MM, Akter M, Bhowmik S (2015) Species Composition and Abundance of Zooplankton Population in Freshwater Pond of Noakhali District, Bangladesh. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 7: 387-393.
  49. Akter A, Rahman MA, Isaac S, Sarker MJ (2016) Zooplankton in the Gut Content of Indian Shad (Tenualosa ilisha): Case Study at the Meghna River Estuary, Bangladesh. Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 5: 2320-3528.
  50. Mozumder PK, Nahar S, Naser MN, Alam M, Huq A, et al. (2012) Species composition of limnetic zooplankton from the southern coastal areas (Mathbaria and Bakerganj) in Bangladesh. Journal of Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Science 38: 111-117.
  51. Ehshan MA, Hossain MS, Mazid MA, Mollah MFA, Rahman S, et al. (1997) Limnology of Chanda beel, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries Research 1: 31-40.
  52. Ferdoushi Z, Ara Y, Khatun T, Ahmed KKU (2017) Ashura beel in Dinajpur district: Limnological aspect. Journal of Bangladesh Agriculture University 15: 103-112.
  53. Hossain MY, Jasmine S, Ibrahim AHM, Ahmed ZF, Ohtomi J, et al. (2007) A Preliminary Observation on Water Quality and Plankton of an Earthen Fish Pond in Bangladesh: Recommendations for Future Studies. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10: 868-873.
  54. Naz S, Najia S (2008) Study on the Zooplankton of Sona Dighi in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University 27: 7-11.
  55. Mojumder IA, Kibria MM, Bhuyan MS (2020) A baseline taxonomic study of zooplankton in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh. Global Journal of Zoology 5: 001-008.
  56. Haque AKMF, Begum N, Islam MS (2015) Seasonal Variations in Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Population in Relation to Some Environmental Factors at the Tidal Sangu River in Chittagong of Bangladesh. Journal of Sylhet Agriculture University 2: 209-219.
  57. Bir J, Sumon MS, Rahaman SMB (2015) The effects of different water quality parameters on zooplankton distribution in major river systems of Sundarbans Mangrove. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 9: 56-63.
  58. Bhuiyan AS, Islam MT, Sharmeen R (2008) Occurrence and Abundance of some Copepods in a Fish Pond in Rajshahi, Bangladesh in Relation to the Physico-Chemical Conditions. Journal of Bio-Science 16: 115-119.
  59. Iqbal MM, Islam MS, Haider MN (2014) Heterogeneity of zooplankton of the Rezu khal Estuary, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh with seasonal environmental effects. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2: 275-282.
  60. Sharif ASM, Islam MM, Bhuyan MS (2017) Zooplankton in the lower Meghna River and its estuary with relation to Physico-chemical parameters, Bangladesh. International Journal of Zoology Studies 2: 6-15.
  61. Alam MTI, Kabir MA (2003) Relationship between Zooplankton abundance and physicochemical parameters in Sundarban ecosystem during monsoon. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 6: 762-765.

© 2020 Md. Simul Bhuyan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.