Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Egypt
*Corresponding author: Mohamed Elborei, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egypt
Submission: January 20, 2022;Published: March 01, 2022
Nanoparticles are microscopic particles with particle size less than 100nm and characterized by unique physical and chemical characters which allow it to have good biological activities and among these biological activities is their use in modulating the tumor hypoxia to enhance the radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment outcome. Tumor hypoxia is one of the major characteristics of solid tumors and it arises from the inadequate blood supply for the rapidly proliferating cancer cells. Tumor hypoxia is a bad prognosis factor as it increases the aggressiveness of the tumor and increases it is resistance to the treatment that’s why overcoming tumor hypoxia provide a great therapeutic benefits for the cancer patients. Hypoxia mediates it is effect mainly through hypoxia inducible factor 1 which causes drug resistance, metastasis, angiogenesis, metabolic shifting, radiotherapy resistance and overall tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. There is keen research working on the tumor hypoxia and trying to discover new drugs and approaches to correct the tumor hypoxia like manganese dioxide nanoparticles, sliver nanoparticles, other metal nanoparticles, prodrugs activated by hypoxia, hyperbaric oxygen, oral oxygen therapy and finally hypoxia inducible factors inhibitors like for example benzopyranyl 1,2,3-triazole, glyceollins and vorinostat.
Keywords:Nanoparticles; Nanomedicine; Tumor; Tumor hypoxia; Tumor microenvironment
Abbreviations:NPs: Nanoparticles; HIFs: Hypoxia Inducible Factors; VEGF: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; TCA: Tricarboxylic Acid; IGF-2: Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2; IL-6: Interleukin-6; MIF: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor; EGFR: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor; MMP1: Matrix Metalloprotease-1; OER: Oxygen Enhancement Ratio; IR: Ionizing Radiation; DSBs: Double-Strand Breaks; SSBs: Single- Strand Breaks; MDR: Multidrug Resistance; ABC: ATP-Binding Cassette; ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species; TME: Tumor Microenvironment; OsSx: Osmium nanoparticles; PEG: Poly Ethylene Glycol; MNPs: Metallic nanoparticles; HAPs: Hypoxia Activated Prodrugs; HBO: Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment