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Degenerative Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities

New Rehabilitation Approaches for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Meena Gupta*

Neuro-Physiotherapist, North Eastern Hill University, IndiaA

*Corresponding author: Meena Gupta, Neuro-Physiotherapist Research Scholar Department of Biomedical Engineering North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

Submission: January 25, 2018;Published: April 10, 2018

Volume1 Issue3
April 2018

Abstract

The development paths followed by South Asian countries are based increasingly on industrialization in urban areas. The aim of this paper is to review how environmental crisis in the rural context is linked critically to the sustainability of livelihood systems. The rural poor face an increasing challenge to meet their basic needs, the most basic of which is food security. Attempts to find solutions need to seriously consider both the class and gender dimensions of the problem. The study aims to analyze how the most environmental policy in South Asia engage little with the issue of gender inequality and how this might impinge on the welfare, efficiency, and sustainability of environmental management. The liberation of women and nature is seen as intimately linked. Within poor households, women's dependence on non-privatized natural resources is high and they are the most affected by the ill-effects of environmental decline. If sustainable development is to be achieved, the planning must address the serious imbalances between urban and rural areas as the unequal distribution of development deprives the rural population of general well-being. Ecofeminism calls upon women and men to reconceptualize themselves, and their relationship to one another and to the nature.

Keywords: Neurodevelopmental disorders; Rehabilitation; Brain gym; Neurofeedback

Introduction

Cerebral palsy (CP), Autism, Down’s Syndromes are the few disorders seen in children. These disorders come under neurodevelopmental disorder which basically seen in children due to insult in the brain at the time of delivery, during pregnancy or after 2 years of birth [1] or any lesion inside the developing brain. In India the ration of CP is 1:300 at every birth according to rehabilitation council of India (RCI) censuses 2001. Children suffering from this disorder have generally spasticity, poor understanding, drooling of saliva, nystagmus, poor social skill and poor cognitive ability. Similarly in autism these children have poor eye contact, poor socialization, poor communication and poor cognitive ability so there are many neurodevelopment disorders (NDD) where we need to work for their physical as well as cognitive enhancement. If we talk about physical issue seen in these NDD patients we have lots of intervention already available such as medical intervention, surgical intervention, physical therapy, special education, speech therapy but research in any field either medical, educational, industrial or social if proven become boon to the society. In this era there are some new technique which helps to enhance cognition and improve physical activities in NDD children such as Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (RTMS) [2], Neurofeedback [3] (NFB), brain gym and Brahmi [4] (Barcopa).

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (RTMS)

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (RTMS) is a magnetic method used to stimulate small regions of the brain. During a TMS procedure, a magnetic field generator, or “coil”, is placed near the head of the person receiving the treatment The coil produces small electric currents in the region of the brain just under the coil via electromagnetic induction. The coil is connected to a pulse generator, or stimulator, that delivers electric current to the coil. The coil produces small electric currents in the region of the brain just under the coil via electromagnetic induction. The coil is connected to a pulse generate or that delivers electric current to the coil. TMS is working on phenomena generating positive and negative ions inside the neurons which help in neuro-plasticity. In these days TMS is frequency used by the researchers in development of new treatment especially in field of rehabilitation.

Neurofeedback (NFB) Brain Training

Neurofeedback (NFB) has been employed in research and clinical setting for the investigation and treatment of a growing number of psychological illnesses. This technique involves detection of electro-cephalographic (EEG) information from the surface of the scalp of a subject that separating its frequency decomposition into its component waveform (alpha, beta, theta, gamma and delta) and making these components visible usually as polygraphic traces on a computer screen. Neuro feedback is being considered as a promising new method for restoring brain function in mental disorders. It takes into account behavioral, cognitive, and subjective aspects as well as brain activity. Though based in technology, neuro feedback is a 100% non-invasive, drug-free, brain training system that helps the central nervous system (CNS) make the best use of your brain’s natural resources. It is extremely powerful and effective. The applications of neuro feedback to enhance performance extend to the arts in fields such as music, dance, and acting. A study with conservatoire musicians found that alpha-theta training benefitted the three music domains of musicality, communication, and technique. Now in these days NFB is used in various hospital setups for dealing autism, managing stress and as a one of the relaxation technique for adult’s patients also.

Brain Gym

In 1970 first time Paul and Gail Dennison’s started research on brain gym exercises for learning disabled for children and adults. They called their field of study as educational kinesiology. In their study they developed knowledge of the relationship of movement to perception, and the impact of these on fine motor and academic skills [5]. Now a days brain gym is a commercial program that claims that any learning challenges can be overcome by finding the right movements, the use of which will create new pathways in the brain. They claim that the repetition of the 26 Brain Gym movements “activates the brain for optimal storage and retrieval of information. All brain gym activities based on performance based learning which helps in neuro-plasticity.

Brahmi

Brahmi is a medical herb/plant its scientific name is Bacopa monnieri [6] it’s a perennial, creeping herb with numerous branches that grows in wetlands and marshy places. Brahmi is native to India but has spread throughout the tropics. Brahmi has great value in ayurvedic medicine mainly used as brain and mental tonic to treat Alzheimer disease [7], memory loss, insanity, insomnia and other mental illness. Brahmi is an edible plant that can grow to about 6 inches in height while Brahmi branches creeps horizontally covering the ground. Brahmi has small oval shaped leaves that are succulent and relatively thick. Brahmi is a popular brain tonic. It is used to promote overall mental health while rejuvenating the optimal function of the brain.

Brahmi is believed to provide the following health benefits.

a. Improves mental cognition.

b. Improves the retention of memory.

c. Improves concentration.

d. Insanity cure.

e. Convulsions treatment.

f. Senility cure.

g. Prevents Epilepsy attacks.

h. Sedative effect that does not dull the senses.

i. Alzheimer Disease treatment.

In many studies we found this herb as neuro-repair and rejuvenating the optimal function of the brain in autistic children. It also helps in desensitized the hyper-activities.

Conclusion

These new intervention approches in field of rehabilitaion acts as a supplimentary treament in enhnacing cognitive and physical level of effected child where the medicine have no such huge role for rehabiltaion. Beside that there are various rehabiltiaon approches such as physical therapy, play therapy and occupational thereapy but with the use of these new intervention such as TMS, NFB , Brain gym or brahmi we can achieve better result and imrpoved rate of progress with the application with these approches.

References

  1. Rosenbaum P, Paneth N, Leviton A, Goldstein M, Bax M, et al. (2007) A report: The definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006. Dev Med Child Neurol Suppl 109: 8-14.
  2. Valero Cabre A, Pascualm Leone A (2005) Impact of TMS on the primary motor cortex and associated spinal systems. IEEE Engineering in Medicine 24(1): 29-35.
  3. Peniston EG, Kulkosky PJ (1989) Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 13(2): 271- 279.
  4. Sivaramakrishna C, Rao CV, Trimurtulu G, Vanisree M, Subbaraju GV (2005) Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry 66(23): 2719-2728.
  5. Beare Kenneth (2008) Brain Gym Exercises. About.com, Retrieved 10-11.
  6. Bandyopadhyay M, Chakarborty R, Raychaudhari U [2008] Antioxidant activities of natural palnts sources in dairy dessert under thermal treatment. Food sci technol 41(5): 816-825.
  7. Steven R, Dianne B, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallef C, et al. (2002) Chronic effects of brahmi on human memory. Neuropsychopharmacology 27: 279-281.

© 2018 Meena Gupta. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.



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