Crimson Publishers Publish With Us Reprints e-Books Video articles

Full Text

Clinical Research in Animal Science

The Effect of Rhizophora racemosa (Red Mangrove) Leaf and Root-Bark on Some Organs (Testis, Ovary and Bursa of Fabricus) Weight of Broilers

Shidi SA*, Wekhe SN, Amakiri AO and Owen OJ

Department of Animal Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Shidi SA, Department of Animal Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Submission: January 20, 2020;Published: August 04, 2020

Volume1 Issue1
August, 2020


An experiment was conducted in the Teaching and Research Farm of the RSUST. Port Harcourt to evaluate the effect of Rhizophora racemosa (Red Mangrove) on testosterone and oestrogen levels in blood serum. Using a 2x3 factoral arrangement in a completely randomized design experiment. The birds were randomly allocated into seven treatment groups. A, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3 of 15 birds per group. All groups were replicated thrice with five birds. Pulverized R. racemosa leaf and root-bark was administered to the birds faded levels of 70, 80 and 90 grams for both leaf and root-bark. The highest levels of inclusions (90gm) were used. The experiment lasted eleven weeks. Results obtained showed that R. racemosa significantly (P<0.05) increases testosterone and Oestrogen level in broilers.

Keywords: Blood; Broiler; Oestrogen; Rhizophora racemosa; Testosterone


The Nigeria population has been reported to have relatively fast growth rate [1]. This means that the current poor intake of animal protein by Nigerians would worsen in the future if urgent steps are not taken to address the situation. It has been suggested by a number of investigators that poultry and its products hold the key to bridging the protein deficiency gap. This is, however, possible only when improved reproduction and management methods are employed to enhance replacement and even more production. Productionists now source for non-conventional and cheaper sources of additive as a substitute to reduce high cost of conventional additives and drugs for livestock. One of the plants of interest is Rhizophora racemosa (Red Mangrove), which is easy to process and is abundantly available throughout the year. R. Racemosa have been investigated by several researchers including Wekhe and Oboh [2] and Wekhe and Ebiye [3] and found not to have any adverse effect on the general well-being of the bird. In this study, the effect of R. racemosa leaf and root-bark on testosterone and oestrogen levels of blood serum will be investigated using the highest dose of 90g/kg for both leaf and root-bark respectively [4-8].

Material and Methods

One Hundred and Five (105) Ross day old broiler chicks (DOC) were used. The study was completely randomized, using the 2x3 factorial design. Two treatment combinations; viz: the R. racemosa leaf and root-bark were used, and three different graded levels were administered (70, 80 and 90g/kg of feed) for both leaf and root-bark, while the control was 0.00g/kg. The arrangement is therefore: Treatment B1, B2 and B3 which had 70, 80 and 90g of leaf in 1kg feed and treatments C1, C2 and C3 also had 70, 80 and 90g of the root-bark in 1kg feed. Treatment A is the control, so had no additive in the feed. The R. racemosa specimens of leaves and roots were obtained from the brackish water of the Eagle Island Port Harcourt. They were flushed clean with tap water allowed air dry of water, they were then separately (i.e. leaf and root) dried in the oven at a temperature of 70/80 °C for 48hrs to a water content level of 10%. The dried specimens were then ground into powdery forms [9-12]. These powders were measured in graded doses and fed to the birds as already, described. The birds were brooded and allowed to acclimatize and stabilize for two weeks. The experiment proper starter in their third week of age and lasted for nine weeks. The birds were eleven weeks old at the end of the experiment, when they were slaughtered. Twelve hours prior to slaughter, feed was withheld from the birds to reduce gut content but were allowed free access to clean drinking water. The birds were killed by decapitation using a sharp. Rapid and complete bleeding was ensured by holding the legs of the birds upwards and the head downward. Blood samples were collected into labeled tubes with no anticoagulant [13-16]. Samples of blood were collected from treatment A i.e. control from male (♂) and female (♀) birds, treatment B3 (90g leaf) and treatment C3 (90g root-bark) and to test for the effect of R. racemosa leaf and root-bark on testosterone and oestrogen levels of the experimental birds. The blood samples were immediately taken to the Haemotology department of University of Port Harcourt for analysis. Result obtained from the blood analysis were computed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range test for Separation of means.

Result and Discussion

Testosterone is the male sex hormone produced from the testes. The male secondary sex characteristics depend on the presence of adequate amounts of testosterone in the body (Frandson, 1979). Testosterone promotes the development and function of accessory sex glands, causes development of secondary sex characteristics, and controls secretion of LH (luteinizing hormone) in the male. It also promotes protein anabolism, resulting in increased body size as compared to the female. The skeleton also responds to testosterone, with the bones becoming larger and thicker [17]. The results for treatments B3 and C3 are comparatively similar in the levels of testosterone, and significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control (Table 1). This is expected since the testes and ovaries of the treated birds were observed to be bigger than the control. It was also observed that the males were massive and fall, and they started to crow at eight weeks old. This indeed is an expression masculinity and maturity in birds. Thus pulverized R. racemosa leaf and root-bark increase testosterone level in broilers. Oestrogen refers to the female sex hormone that stimulates female sex glands. An increasing level of oestrogen is undoubtedly an important factor m development of libido-the sex drive associated with receptivity to the male by the female. Secondary sex characteristics associated with femininity to a large extend result from the actions of oestrogen [18]. The result of the experiment showed that oestrogen levels in the treated birds were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. The female broilers were observed to be attractive and sharp with bright eyes and reddish comb. It was also observed that the weights of their ovaries were higher than the control. These are characteristics of maturity influence by R. racemosa.

Table 1: Effect of R. racemosa on testosterone and oestrogen levels (nm O/L) of broilers.

abmeans with different superscripts vary significant (p>0.05).


The results of the effect of R. racemosa leaf and root-bark on testosterone and oestrogen levels of broilers showed that there is a significant difference when compared with that of the control. This means that R. racemosa influences sex hormones in broilers. And because of the significant rise in the level of testosterone and oestrogen, R. racemosa can be used to improve libido breeder broilers.


  1. FAO (1996) Food and Agricultural Organization. The State of Food and Agric, Rome, Italy, pp. 205-213.
  2. Wekhe SN, Oboh CC (2007) The effect of Rhizophora racemosa (mangrove) feed additive on broiler performance. Proc 3rd Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production. Calabar, Nigeria, pp. 419-521.
  3. Wekhe SN, Ebiye A (2007) The effect of Rhizophora racemosa dietary additive on some blood parameters of broilers. 12th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria. Ile-Ife, Nigeria, p. 46.
  4. Ademosun AA, Kalange IO (1973) Effect of calcium and phosphorus level on the performance of layers in Nigeria. 1. Egg Production, egg shell quality, feed intake and body weight. Poult Sci 52(4): 1382-1392.
  5. Aduku AO (1993) Nutrient composition of feed stuff Tropical feedstuff analysis table. (1st edn), p. 2.
  6. Dalziel JM (1937) The useful plants of tropical West Africa Crown Agents. London 1: 612.
  7. Duke S, Charles OW (1981) The effect of dietary calcium on laying hen on egg shell quality. Poult Sci 60: 1608.
  8. Gaus RM, Cherry P (2004) Effects of body weight at, and lighting regimen and growth curve to, 20 weeks on laying performance in broiler breeders. Br Poult Sci 45(4): 445-452.
  9. Joseph NS, Robinson FE, Renema RA, Thorsteinson KA (2003) Comb growth during sexual maturation in female broiler breeders. J Appl Poult Sci 12(1): 7-13.
  10. Lewis PD, Backhouse D, Gous RM (2004) Constant photoperiods and sexual maturity in broiler breeder pullets. Br Poult Sci 45(4): 557-560.
  11. McGary S, Estevez I, Bakst MR (2003) Potential relationships between physical traits and male broiler breeder fertility. Poult Sci 82(2): 328-337.
  12. Oluyemi JA, Roberts FA (2000) Poultry production in warm wet climates, (2nd edn), Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria.
  13. Parker TH, Ligon JD (2002) Dominant male red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) test the dominance status of other males. Behave Ecol Sociobiol 53: 20-24.
  14. Pizzar T, Cornwallis CK, Lovlie H, Jakobsson S, Birkhead TR (2003) Sophisticated sperm allocation in male fowl. Nature 426(6962): 70-74.
  15. Wekhe SN, Igoni KE (1999) Growth effect of Furaltadone on broilers on the humid Tropics. Nig Vet J 20(1): 101-106.
  16. Wekhe SN, Njoku KE (1999) Preliminary Investigation on the effect of Alchornea cordifolia on the Weight gain and organ size of broilers. Proc 5th Ann Conf of ASAN. Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
  17. Wekhe SN, Taylor B (1992) Antifungal-antibiotic combination as broiler feed additives in the humid tropics. Discovery and Innovation 4(1): 92-96.
  18. Zeller FJ (1971) The effects of testosterone on dihydrostestosterone on the comb, and pituitary gland of the female fowl. J Reprod Fert 25(1): 125-127.

© 2020 SA Shidi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

About Crimson

We at Crimson Publishing are a group of people with a combined passion for science and research, who wants to bring to the world a unified platform where all scientific know-how is available read more...

Leave a comment

Contact Info

  • Crimson Publishers, LLC
  • 555 Madison Avenue, 5th floor
  •     New York, NY 10022, USA
  • +1 (929) 600-8049
  • +1 (929) 447-1137