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COJ Reviews & Research

Dynamics of Salt Stress in Plants: Effects and Plant Responses

Vitória Costa Pereira Lopes Alves de França1*, Wellington Ferreira Campos2 and Leonardo Barros Dobbss2

1PhD student from Postgraduate Program in Vegetal Production at Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri - UFVJM, Diamantina - MG, Brazil

2Researchers from the Postgraduate Program in Plant Production at Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri - UFVJM, Diamantina - MG, Brazil

*Corresponding author:Vitória Costa Pereira Lopes Alves de França, PhD student from Postgraduate Program in Vegetal Production at Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri - UFVJM, Diamantina - MG, Brazil

Submission: December 28, 2022; Published: February 09, 2023

DOI: 10.31031/COJRR.2022.04.000593

ISSN 2639-0590
Volum4 Issue4


Plants are continuously exposed to various stresses that can prevent them from reaching their full genetic potential. This makes them a key point of study for plant scientists seeking to understand how these stresses influence their metabolism and responses, and how these stresses can put their productivity and food safety at risk. Studies that aim to provide improvements in salinity tolerance for crops using a variety of measures still have a vast amount of open knowledge. Furthermore, new agronomic alternatives have shown efficacy in promoting and sensitizing plant defense mechanisms when exposed to different environmental stresses. However, in order to study these new measures, it is necessary to understand how these high concentrations can affect the plant directly or indirectly, influencing germination, growth, and production. Once the plants present different responses to the salt level, they may present sensitivity or resistance to this factor in the environment. This is because they may present adaptation mechanisms to this condition and maintain survival and productive potential, or even achieve better results. Thus, there is much to be studied to understand the dynamics of salt stress in plants and the metabolic, physiological and morphological responses triggered by salt stress.

Keywords:Abiotic stress; NaCl; Crops

Mini Review

Soil salinity influences directly or indirectly the functioning of the internal mechanisms of plants and processes such as germination to production. These influences and their damages are due to the interactions between soil physicochemical properties and morphological/ physiological characteristics of plants [1,2]. The effect of salinity in soil will enable the induction of primary stresses, culminating in the occurrence of oxidative stress [3]. In prolonged stress situations, tissue dehydration may occur, and with this, the plants will suffer osmotic and ionic stress compromising photosynthesis and accelerating leaf senescence [4- 7]. When stressed, a reduction in available resources can occur, repressing cell division and expansion, affecting the light collecting complex, stomatal density reduction of internal CO2 concentration; and thus, directly compromising the photosynthetic activity [8-10]. When plants are specifically exposed to salt stress conditions depending on the severity, duration of stress and resistance/adaptation they respond using different mechanisms [11]. Glycophytic plants are mostly represented by agricultural crops, with low salinity tolerance, in which germination, growth, development and production are inhibited (NaCl > 25mM). Halophytes, on the other hand, are plants adapted to salinized environments (optimal growth around NaCl > 200mM), representing about 1% of the entire flora and are able to complete their life cycle by expanding their growth and production. The halophyte plants present physiological and morphological characteristics that differentiate them from the glycophytes [12]. In morphology, it is observed that structures such as salt glands and trichomes allow the salt absorption in specific regions and mechanisms of ionic exclusion and reduction in the number of leaves [13,14]. In physiology, the strategic responses for the plants to survive under salinization conditions include signal transduction pathways involved in processes ranging from salt stress detection to the expression of responsive genes that enable the regulation of various processes [15,16]. At the molecular level, salt tolerance in halophytic plants is due to the regulation of genes that respond to stress from the action of direct or indirect regulation mechanisms by the phytohormones abscisic acid and ethylene [17,18].


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© 2023 Vitória Costa Pereira Lopes Alves de França. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.