Head of Internal Control and Monitoring Department, Uzbekistan
*Corresponding author: Rashidov Rahmatullo, Head of Internal Control and Monitoring Department, Uzbekistan
Submission: September 15, 2020; Published: November 17, 2020
ISSN 2639-0590Volum2 Issue5
Cotton is the main fiber in international production. Globally, the area under cotton is 35 million hectares and produces about 25.5 million tons of cotton. It is estimated that mankind is currently 2 billion. hectares of arable land. Given the global population of 9.6 billion by 2050, the issue of rational use of available agrarian resources is becoming increasingly important in providing them with quality food.Profitability of cotton production in the world has remained unchanged over the last few years. Global climate change is affected by problems such as global climate change, cotton-growing stressors - excessive rainfall during the sowing season, rising temperatures during flowering, soil fertility, increased pests and diseases, and lack of agro-technology. In this regard, measures should be taken to address these problems in the cotton industry, to increase the efficiency of the use of resources used in cotton growing, to introduce innovative, resource-saving technologies in the industry.
Keywords: Agricultural economics; Natural resource; Economics financial;Financial network resources resource savings;Social resources technologies
Measures that increase the efficiency of the use of resources in the cotton industry, the
implementation of resource-saving technologies are of national importance. Modernization
of agriculture, introduction of intensive methods of agricultural production, first of all,
modern agro-technologies, which save water and other resources, use of high-performance
agricultural machinery are the priority tasks. It is also noted that there are no effective
mechanisms for economic incentives for the introduction of water-saving technologies in
cotton growing, and state support for local producers who supply drip irrigation systems.
In this regard, it is important to expand the scope of research to increase the efficiency of
implementing resource-saving technologies in cotton growing.
Cotton production is a production process with very high resource costs, especially water and labor. Therefore, the issue of resource conservation is important in ensuring the competitiveness of products, and it is advisable to take a scientific and practical approach to resource saving in the production of raw cotton in the following areas: First, it is desirable to consider the absolute cost savings in cotton production. This implies the absolute reduction of the material and technical and labor resources involved in the production of raw cotton by the area under cotton. For example, it may mean reducing water consumption by one hectare of land, reducing labor costs per one hectare, or reducing the amount of fuel consumed per acre. At the same time, the main benchmark is resource consumption rates or current indicators used in advanced cotton producing farms; Reducing the costs of material and technical resources spent on cotton fields at the same time by replacing more expensive resources with other cheaper ones in real time. For example, expensive mineral fertilizers can be replaced by less expensive and environmentally friendly fertilizers .
Second, it is desirable to consider the relative cost savings in cotton production. This implies the reduction of unit costs per unit of production as a result of increasing the productivity of cotton, while the amount of resources consumed by the area under cotton is unchanged.
Third, it is desirable to adopt a comprehensive approach to saving resources in cotton production. This includes the use of the “Consolidation of Resource Consumption Directive” and “Relative Consumption Directive” while reducing costs in cotton production.
It is possible to observe different points of view focusing on the economic essence of the concept of resource. In particular, Zokirov  said, “Resource is understood from the point of view of society as a set of natural resources used for continuous reproduction of social production and satisfaction of personal consumption of members of society. Resource is a French word meaning an auxiliary tool” . According to Olmasov  all the material and intangible means necessary for the creation of goods and services and their delivery from production to consumption constitute economic resources of labor and labor” . However, in the first definition, the concept of resource is given in a much narrower sense, limited only to natural resources. Based on the above considerations, the composition of the resources available in the cotton sector can be summarized as follows. That is, material and technical resources; labor resources; financial and credit resources; intellectual products; information resources and, in our opinion, administrative resources in cotton growing should be taken into account.
A number of economists have conducted research on the use of resource-saving technologies. In particular, Abdiev  commented on the resources spent in the cotton sector: “The amount of mineral fertilizers used for cotton growing is growing from year to year, but they do not always ensure the growth of cotton yields, as they are not used effectively in practice. Therefore, it is expedient to develop new technological methods of application of mineral fertilizers.” , economist Shermatov  Technology should be considered as a complex interconnected system. Disruption of any process in this system drastically reduces the efficiency of resources expended in all subsequent processes. On the contrary, the correct implementation of technological processes, the introduction of new technologies will ensure a large amount of output per unit of resource consumed “.
It is recommended to determine the resource-saving ratio (ПТТ) by evaluating the weight of innovative digital saving technologies and techniques in the cotton sector’s resource management system. Therefore, it is proposed to calculate these indicators in the system of socio-economic efficiency gains in cotton production (Figure 1).
In this case, an estimate is presented using the arithmetic mean of the four indicators shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1:Resource-saving technologies in cotton growing economic efficiency indicators system.
That is, the share of digital and innovative technologies (ТСтт) in cotton production technologies; the ratio of innovative resourcesaving digital technologies to the value of the cotton industry in terms of gross product (КСтт); the share of innovative resourcesaving digital technologies in total cotton production costs (ХСтт); based on such indicators as the ratio of innovative resource-saving digital technologies to the annual investment in the cotton sector in the economy (ИСтт).
The increase in this index may be the result of the increased use
of modern technologies in the cotton sector’s resource management
system and the sustainability of the sector’s development in the
future. Analysis of the costs of cultivation of raw cotton in the
regions of Uychi, Kosonsoy and Pop, with different areas of land,
environmental conditions, soil fertility, labor resources and
climatic conditions in Namangan region. In this process, the costs
of producing 1 tonnes of raw cotton in the districts in 2018 were
studied (Table 1). The table shows that the cost per 1 ton of raw
cotton in 2018 varied in Uychi, Pop and Kosonsoy districts [6-9].
In Kosonsay district, the cost of the cost element was lower than the rest of the district, which was 30 percent. The cost of one ton of raw cotton is 1261,000 sums. In Pop district it is worth 1156 thousand sums and in Uychi district 1255 thousand sums. In general, the share of wages is much higher than the other expenditures in the districts under analysis of the cost of cotton. This demonstrates the high level of material security of workers in the cotton sector. In particular, this figure is 36% in Uychi district, 36% in Pop district, 30% in Kosonsoy district [10-13].
Table 1:In Uychi, Kosonsoy and Pop districts of Namangan region Composition of Costs per 1 ton of Cotton Production (2018).
Table 2:Save on sowing on Azamat and Otaboev farms in Mingbulak district Technology Efficiency (2018).
One of the most important issues in the cotton industry today is the sowing process. This necessitates the use of resource-saving technologies in this area (Table 2). One of such resource-saving technologies for the 2018 season was used in Mingbulak district of Namangan region. The information on the use of sawdust on the farm “Busoliha Otaboev” of Navoi MTP of Mingbuloq district was studied. The farm has a total area of 30 hectares of cotton fields with a yield of 26.7 centners. Using traditional technology, the seed cost per hectare is 45kg. Using energy-saving technology, the seed costs 25kg per 1ha. This allowed to save 20 (45-25)kg or 120000 (20 * 6000) Seeds per 1 hectare of cotton fields. At the same time, fuel consumption per hectare decreased by 4.5 liters. The 1 hour working capacity of this technique is 3 hectares. The Busoliha Otaboev farm saves 8,410,500 sums as a result of the use of sawdust [14-16].
© 2020 Rashidov Rahmatullo. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.