Abstract

COJ Reviews & Research

Air Pollution Cause Mental Retardation in Children: Epigenetic Modification, DNA Methylation and MicroRNAs

Submission: September 21, 2021; Published: September 27, 2021

DOI: 10.31031/COJRR.2021.03.000565

ISSN: 2639-0590
Volume3 Issue3

Abstract

Air pollution is an emerging burden of environmental health issues across the world. To date, several lines of study highlighted the impact of air pollution with human health and diseases: Cardiovascular diseases, liver damage, kidney damage, and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is the presence of substances or chemicals released into the atmosphere that can harm and deter human health and other living things [1, 2]. There are many different types of air pollutants such as particulates, gases, and biological molecules. It is known that air pollution is directly linked to cardiovascular and respiratory health problems and diseases Siddique [3]. However, there is still debating the premise that air pollution can also harm the Central Nervous System (CNS) and cause impairments to the function and structure of the brain. Health intervention like Poor air quality can cause issues short -term and longterm health effects in elderly citizens and children. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 9 out of 10 people across the world are exposed to high levels of air pollution outside which are emitted during emission of fossil fuels in cars, power plants and many industrial processes [4]. There is plenty of research in mental health and air pollution in adults, however, research conducted during the early development of childhood and adolescence is rare. Interestingly, it was reported that adolescents and young children are affected the most by air pollution [5]. Aspects of organ sensitivity following exposure of air pollution in children, it was postulated that the heart, immune system, lungs and developing brain are vulnerable. At birth, the growth rate of the brain is highest and continues to develop throughout childhood which plays an important role in the child’s attention span, behavior, and memory [6]. This may result in risk of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Increasing concern indicates air pollution affects health interaction between maternal and fetus during pregnancy which is influenced by unexpected delivery outcomes. The global burden of disease attributed 4.2 million deaths and

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