Layali Nghaimish Alhafi*
A Registered Nurse, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding author: Layali Nghaimish Alhafi, A Registered Nurse, Saudi Arabia
Submission: March 02, 2020;Published: March 18, 2020
ISSN: 2577-2007Volume6 Issue2
Background and aim: There are a paucity of literature relating to job satisfaction and rates of job dissatisfaction among national Saudi nurses. The main aim of this review was to assess job satisfaction among nurses working in mental health settings within the current literature.
Methods: The database which was be used for this review included the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL®), Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid Old Medline, Embase Classic+EMBASE (Ovid), The Web of Science (Thomson Reuters).
Conclusion & recommendations:Identifying and improving the factors that affect job satisfaction among mental health nurses in Saudi Arabia could help to maintain the stability of Saudi nurses working in public hospitals and increase the number of Saudi students enrolling in mental health nursing programs in the future.
Keywords: Nurses; Satisfaction; Mental; Health
Job satisfaction ranks highly as one of the main factors influencing turnover rates among nurses . Psychological well-being work is recognized to be more distressing than that in other health fields. Emotional well-being experts need to adapt to troublesome patients, incorporating some with various mental and substance use issue who may be increasingly forceful or vicious and present self-destructive practices, in this way requiring immense measures of time and vitality and energy from several resources . It has also been reported that the nurses’ satisfaction is correlated with general life satisfaction. This connection is corresponding as individuals who are happy with life will in general be happy with their activity and those that are happy with their activity will in general be happy with life. Occupation fulfillment specifically effect on people wellbeing and prosperity. Correlations have also been noted between job satisfaction and physical symptoms, emotional states of anxiety and depression .
More importantly, while client satisfaction was the central focus of mental health reform, job satisfaction among mental health nurses was, and remains, a major consideration . On the other hand, nurses who experience greater work satisfaction are better motivated to work together as a team and collaborate with other groups or organizations. Job satisfaction also correlates with better quality of care . The study of Saleh et al.  revealed that the nurses who are working in King Fahad Specialist hospital were exposed to many kinds of stressors which affected their level of job satisfaction, and there is a need for adopting strategies to reduce stress, increase job satisfaction and finally improving patient quality of care. Previous studies revealed that job satisfaction also tends to reduce absenteeism, staff turnover, and burnout, deterring substance use and mental or physical distress .
By contrast, too many unsatisfied professionals including nurses may pose a serious barrier to successful healthcare reform . Another research study revealed that job satisfaction is an important facet of nurses’ lives that can affect patients’ safety, productivity, performance, quality of care and commitment to organization and profession . The study of Fleury et al.  revealed that job satisfaction among mental health nurses was significantly associated with absence of team conflict, stronger team support, better team collaboration, greater member involvement in the decision-making process, affective commitment toward the team, as well as lack of a market/rational culture . The main aim of this review is to assess job satisfaction among nurses working in mental health settings within the current literature.
Definition of job satisfaction
Job satisfaction can be defined as the enjoyable and emotional state resulting from the evaluation of one’s job or job experiences; the employee feels fulfillment and pride in achieving the business’s goals . It refers to the attitudes and feelings people have about their work. Positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction. Negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction .
The issue of job satisfaction among nurses
Job satisfaction and morale of medical professionals is of concern worldwide. Workers who are satisfied with their work perform well, they also have reduced level of absenteeism and job changes. Health workers who are satisfied with their work are likely to report high satisfaction in their marriages and fewer psychiatric symptoms . It has also been reported that health workers’ satisfaction is correlated with general life satisfaction . This correlation is reciprocal as people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and those that are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. Job satisfaction directly impact on individual’s health and wellbeing. Correlations have also been noted between job satisfaction and physical symptoms, emotional states of anxiety and depression .
Job satisfaction among nurses in mental health
Mental health nurses work with people suffering from various psychiatric conditions and their families to offer help and support in ameliorating their conditions. The scope of their work includes caring for patients experiencing acute or chronic mental health conditions, assessing and evaluating patients’ challenges and discussing the best ways to solve them. They also ensure correct dosing of medication including injections and monitoring results of treatment and conducting risk assessment . Several studies on stress among nurses have identified a variety of stressors that depend upon the clinical specialty. However, some common stressors across nursing specialties include poor working relationships between nurses and doctors and other health care professionals, demanding communication and relationships with patients and relatives, emergency cases, high workload, understaffing and lack of support or positive feedback from senior nursing .
There is a global shortage of mental health nurses; this shortage is further complicated by constant emigration of these nurses from developing countries to more affluent countries. A better understanding of factors contributing to job satisfaction and psychological well-being among mental health nurses may help improve their working conditions with resulting benefits for the quality of nursing care . One study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of job satisfaction and psychological well-being among mental health nurses, the study revealed that 67.3% of mental health nurses reported low job satisfaction, 60% and 34.5% reported average and high level of job satisfaction respectively. Majority of these nurses reported positive psychological well-being (84.5%), while 15.5% had psychological distress. Job satisfaction had a positive significant relationship with psychological well-being. Job satisfaction was also significantly related to older age of respondents. Majority of the respondents in this study reported that they were satisfied with their work. Many of them also reported positive psychological well-being. There was a significantly positive relationship between job satisfaction and psychological well-being. The study concluded that continuous efforts should be made to examine other factors in the work environment that can impact positively on the psychological well-being and job satisfaction among mental health nurses .
Status in Saudi Arabia
Job satisfaction among nurses in Saudi Arabia. Due to the shortage of both female and male Saudi registered nurses, more than half of the nurses working in public hospitals in Saudi Arabia come from overseas; approximately 55.4 percent of all nurses working in 251 public hospitals were expatriates . A lack of job satisfaction in the nursing profession may cause an increase in job turnover, exacerbating Saudi Arabia’s problems with a shortage of nursing staff. Identifying job dissatisfaction will help develop new policies and to provide more support for nurses and the opportunity for workforce improvement plans . Job satisfaction among nurses has long been documented as an important indicator of how nurses can improve their performance and the quality of patient care. In Saudi Arabia, several research studies have investigated job satisfaction in nursing from the perspective of expatriate nurses of different nationalities as well as Saudi nurses in public hospitals, private hospitals, tertiary care hospitals and military hospitals .
These studies included a variety of related variables, such as quality of life, organizational commitment, recruitment and retention barriers, leadership style, hospital performance, intention to stay and the work environment [14,15]. Dossary  and colleagues conducted a quantitative cross-sectional study of nurses in a Saudi Arabian university teaching hospital. The aim of the study was to measure nurses’ job satisfaction and to determine the factors that influence job satisfaction. The response rate in the study was 87.5 percent of 217 nurses, including Saudis and non-Saudis, who were surveyed. The findings revealed that the participants were satisfied with certain factors, such as the nature of work, their co-workers, leadership and supervisors. However, they were dissatisfied with other factors, such as pay, operational conditions, fringe benefits and contingent rewards. The cross-sectional design limited cause and effect inferences, in addition to the small sample size obtained despite the high response rate. In addition, the study was limited to a single university teaching hospital, thus limiting the generalizability of the results .
The widespread nursing shortage and the high turnover rate of nurses have become a significant problem and phenomenon in most healthcare organizations of both developed and developing countries around the globe. In the Saudi Arabian healthcare system, the shortage of Saudi nurses working in the public hospitals is a major concern, as it greatly affects the efficiency and productivity of the healthcare sector. Identifying and improving the factors that affect job satisfaction among mental health nurses in Saudi Arabia could help to maintain the stability of Saudi nurses working in public hospitals and increase the number of Saudi students enrolling in mental health nursing programs in the future.
© 2020 Fatma Rushdy Mohamed. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.