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Cohesive Journal of Microbiology & Infectious Disease

Bacteriological Examination of Cooked Meat and Chicken Meals

Fahim A Shaltout1*, Hanan M Lamada2 and Ehsan AM Edris3

1Food Hygiene Department, Faculty of Vet. Med, Egypt

2Animal Health Research Tanta, Egypt

3Tanta University Hospitals, Egypt

*Corresponding author: Fahim A Shaltout, Food Hygiene Department, Faculty of Vet. Med, Egypt

Submission: April 01, 2020; Published: July 01, 2020

DOI: 10.31031/CJMI.2020.03.000575

ISSN 2578-0190
Volume3 issues5

Abstract

Sixty random samples (15 of each) were collected from different restaurants to evaluate their bacteriological quality The mean values of APC, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform counts(cfu/g) were 6.03×103 ±1.45×103, 3.16×103±0.72×103, 7.43×102±1.05×102 for meat,8.58×103±1.65×103,6.53×103 ±1.24×103, 9.18×102±2.07×103 for chicken, 9.91×103±2.18×103, 5.25×103±0.86×103,1.06×103±0.19×102for beef kofta and 2.03×104±0.43×104,9.14×103±2.06×103,3.32×103±0.45×103 for chicken kofta, respectively. The results showed that 12 isolates of Escherichia coli were identified from examined ready to eat chicken and meat meals with different percentages(O26:H11, O111:H4, O124, O78,O91:H21, O121:H7, O127:H6, O146:H21) Escherichia coli strains were serologically identified from such examined meals, there are 6 isolates of salmonella were identified from examined samples. Also, there are 21 isolates of staph aureus were isolated from examined samples represented as 20% from meat,40% from beef kofta,33.33% from chicken and 46.67% from chicken kofta [1-4].

Introduction

Cooked meat and chicken meals due to their high nutritive value and agreeable taste. Meat meals have an excellent source of high-quality protein vitamin and mineral. Raw materials of bad microbial quality, bad personal hygiene and consumption at room temperature lead to contamination of foods with pathogenic bacteria especially Salmonellae and coliforms, causing potential risk to human. Incorrect habits responsible for microbial food borne illness reported and typically involve cross contamination of raw and cooked foods, poor cooking and storage at unsuitable temperature. Staphylococcal food poisoning has rapid onset and its symptoms include nausea and strong vomiting with or without diarrhea. Salmonella spp can persist on final raw products. Disease can result when these products are handled without good hygienic practices, not properly cooked and/or subjected to temperature abuse. It is considered that the presence of Salmonella spp in products makes it unsafe for human consumption. Escherichia coli is an important organism involved in food-borne disease, it is considered as a good indicator of possible fecal contamination. Therefore, the present study was planned out for determination of APC, Enterobacteriacae & coliforms counts, isolation and identification of Escherichia coli, salmonella and staph aureus for ready to eat meat and chicken meals including meat, chicken, beef kofta and chicken kofta [5-10].

Materials and Methods

Collection of samples

Sixty random samples of cooked chicken and meat meals including meat, chicken, beef kofta and chicken kofta (15 of each) were collected from different restaurants. Each sample was kept in a separate sterile plastic bag, put in an ice box then transferred to the laboratory under complete aseptic condition without any regard for the examination bacteriologically.

Preparation of samples (ICMSF, 1996):

To 25 grams of the sample, 225 ml of sterile peptone water were added thoroughly mixed sterile blender for 2.5 minutes, from which tenth fold serial dilution was prepared. The prepared samples were subjected to the following bacteriological investigations:

  1. Determination of APC (ICMSF, 1996).
  2. Determination of total entero-bacteriaceae count (Grok, 1976) using Violet Red Bile Glucose agar.
  3. Determination of total coliform count (ICMSF, 1996) using Violet Red Bile agar medium.
  4. Isolation and identification of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (ISO,2001): it was applied by using MacConkey broth as enriched broth and EMB as plating media.
  5. Isolation and Identification of salmonellae (ISO,2002).

Isolation and identification of staph aureus ((ICMSF, 1996).

Results

The results of bacteriological examination of cooked chicken and meat meals samples revealed that APC and coliform were highest in chicken kofta followed by beef kofta then chicken then meat. While entero-bacteriaceae was highest in chicken kofta followed by chicken then beef kofta then meat. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli in the examined samples revealed that the incidence of Escherichia coli was 26.67% in chicken, 20% in both of beef kofta and 13.33 in meat, 12 isolates of Escherichia coli represented as 13.33% from meat with serotypes O26:H11 (6.67%) and O111:H4 (6.67) 20% from beef kofta with serotypes O26:H11(13.33%)and O124(6.67%).20% from chicken with serotypes O78(6.67%), O127: H6(6.67%)and O146:H21(6.67%). 26.67% from chicken kofta with serotypes O26:H11(13.33%), O91: H21(6.67%) and O121:H7(6.67%). Isolation and identification of salmonella in the examined samples revealed that the incidence of salmonella was equal in meat, beef kofta and chicken (6.67%) while in chicken kofta was the highest (20%). 6.67%from meat with serotype S. Heidelberg 6.67% from beef kofta with serotype S. Montevideo 6.67% from chicken with serotype S. Kentucky 20%from chicken kofta with serotypes S. anatum (6.67%), S. Infant is (6.67%) and S. Typhimurium (6.67%). Isolation and identification of staphylococcus aureus revealed that there are 21 isolates of staph-aureus were isolated from examined samples represented as 20% from meat,40% from beef kofta,33.33% from chicken and 46.67% from chicken kofta [10-15].

Discussion

APC is very important for evaluation of sanitary condition of cooked meat meals limit is suggested for total aerobic bacterial count I in various foods range from105 to 107 microbes/g (EEC,2005). It is evident from the results recorded in Table 1 that the APC/g of the examined samples of cooked chicken and meat meals ranged from 2.1×103 to 1.7×104 with an average of 6.03×103 ± 1.45×103 (cfu/g) for meat, 4.6×103 to 2.9×104 with an average 9.91×103 ± 2.18×103/(cfu/g) for meat kofta, 3.5×103to 3.9×104 with an average 8.58×103 ± 1.65×103 / (cfu/g) for chicken and 6.0×103 to 7.7×104 with an average 2.03×104±0.43×104 (cfu/g) for chicken kofta. The current results nearly similar to the results found that the mean value of RTE kofta was 1.83×104cfu/gm, while higher results was recorded who found that the mean value of APC of RTE kofta was 8.51×105cfu/g, also higher results was recorded found that the mean APC of RTE chicken meals was 1.9×104 cfu/g and in RTE meat meals was1.2×104 cfu/g high incidence of APC , may indicate that the cooking process was inadequate, or post cooking contamination had occurred, or the length of time and temperature control in storage or display facilities was inadequate to prevent bacterial contamination ,or that a combination of these factors was involved. Results given in Table 2 revealed that the Acceptability of the examined samples of cooked meat and chicken meals based on their APC was (86.67% ) of meat samples were accepted samples but (13.33%) of meat samples were unaccepted, (73.33%) of beef kofta samples were accepted but (26.67%)of beef kofta samples were unaccepted,(80%) of chicken samples were accepted but (20%) of chicken samples were unaccepted and (60%) of chicken kofta were accepted but (40% )of chicken kofta were unaccepted. Results achieved in Table 3 showed that the mean values of total Enterobacteriaceae counts/g in the examined samples of cooked chicken and meat meals were 3.16×103±0.72×103/(cfu/g) for meat, 5.25×103±0.86×103/(cfu/g) for meat kofta, 6.53×103±1.24×103/ (cfu/g)for chicken and 9.14×103±2.06×103/(cfu/g) for chicken kofta. the current results were nearly similar to recorded who found that the mean values of Enterobacteriaceae of RTE kofta was 7.15×103/(cfu/g) while higher results recorded who found the mean value of Enterobacteriaceae of street vended kofta samples was 1.5×107cfu/g. From the results in Table 4, it is obvious that the mean values of total coliform counts/(cfu/g) in the examined samples of cooked chicken and meat meals were7.43×102 ± 1.05×102/(cfu/g) for meat, 1.06×103±0.19×102/(cfu/g) for meat kofta, 9.18×102±2.07×103/(cfu/g) for chicken and 3.32×103±0.45×103/(cfu/g) for chicken kofta the current results was nearly similar to the results recorded who found that the mean values of coliform was 5.17×102±1.2×102cfu/g. while higher results was recorded who found the mean value of coliform count of koftas and a witches was 1.8×105/(cfu/g). From the results in Tables 5&6 showed that there are 12 isolates of Escherichia coli represented as 13.33% from meat with serotypes O26:H11 (6.67%) and O111:H4(6.67)20% from beef kofta with serotypes O26:H11(13.33%)andO124(6.67%).20% from chicken with serotypes O78(6.67%), O127: H6(6.67%)and O146:H21(6.67%).26.67% from chicken kofta with serotypes O26:H11(13.33%), O91 : H21(6.67%)and O121:H7(6.67%). From Tables 7&8 showed the incidence and serotyping of salmonella isolated from cooked meat and chicken meals is 6.67%from meat identified serologically as S. Heidelberg O4,5,12:Hr:1,2 6.67% from beef kofta identified serologically as S. Montevideo O6,7,14:Hg,m,s:1,7,26.67% from chicken identified serologically as S. Kentucky O8,20:Hi:Z6 20%from chicken kofta identified serologically as S. Anatum O1,9,12:Hg,m:1,7(6.67%), S. Infantis O6,7,14:Hr:1,5(6.67%)and S. Typhimurium O1,4,5,12:Hi:1,2(6.67%). Salmonella microorganisms were previously isolated from cooked meat meals also salmonella failed to be isolated from cooked meat meals. The symptoms the symptoms of salmonellosis include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever and abdominal cramps [15-25]. The results in Tables 9&10 reported that staph. aureus was isolated from 20% of meat, 40% of meat kofta, 33.33% of chicken and 46.67% of chicken kofta. such organism was isolated previously from ready to eat meat meals who isolated staph aureus from cooked samples. The presence of staph. aureus in RTE meat meals may be due to their contamination from food handlers, bad cleaned equipment’s or post processing contamination.

Table 1:Analytical results of Aerobic plate counts/g (APC) in the examined samples of cooked meat and chicken meals (n=15).


Table 2:Acceptability of the examined samples of cooked meat and chicken meals based on their APC (n=15).

*Center for Food Safety (2014) for cooked meat meals **EOS (2005) for heat treated poultry meat.


Table 3:Analytical results of Enterobacteriaceae counts/g in the examined samples of cooked meat and chicken meals (n=15).


Table 4:Analytical results of coliform counts/g in the examined samples of cooed meat and chicken meals (n=15).


Table 5:Incidence and serotyping of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from the examined samples of cooked meat meals (n=15).

EIEC: Enter invasive E. coli; EHEC: Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli


Table 6:Incidence and serotyping of Enteropathogenic E. coli isolated from the examined samples of cooked chicken meals (n=15).

EPEC: Enteropathogenic E. coli; ETEC: Enterotoxigenic E. coli; EHEC: Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli


Table 7:Incidence and serotyping of Salmonellae isolated from the examined samples of cooked meat meals (n=15).


Table 8:Incidence and serotyping of Salmonellae isolated from the examined samples of cooked chicken meals (n=15).


Table 9:Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the examined samples of cooked meat meals (n=15).


Table 10:Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the examined samples of cookedchicken meals (n=15).


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© 2020 Fahim A Shaltout. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

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