Crimson Publishers Publish With Us Reprints e-Books Video articles

Full Text

Biodiversity Online J

Underutilized Andean Crop Kañawa (Chenopodium Pallidicaule Aellen)

Juan Pablo Rodriguez1* and Marten Sørensen2

1International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, UAE

2Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

*Corresponding author: Juan Pablo Rodriguez, Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark

Submission: March 08, 2021; Published: April 28, 2021

ISSN 2637-7082
Volume1 Issue4

Abstract

Small farmers worldwide are the custodians of agro-biodiversity belonging to both the plant and animal kingdoms. Grains and vegetables are the essentials needed to sustain our food systems. Goosefoots, i.e., Chenopodium species like kañawa (Ch. pallidicaule) and Quinoa (Ch. quinoa), are prominent examples of domestication by small farmers during ancient times that still exist. Chenopodium grains possess high nutritional profiles and are further characterized by being resilient climate crops. Kañawa tolerates salinity, drought and frost and its diversity allows farmers to cultivate the crop even above 4000m a.s.l. It is a staple food source as an ingredient in a balanced and low glycaemic index diet.

Introduction

Kañawa, also known as cañahua or cañihua (Ch. pallidicaule Aellen), is a close relative of quinoa (Ch. quinoa Willd.) originating in the Peruvian and Bolivian Andean Highlands or Puna. Bolivia and Peru conserve a large collection of cañahua accessions with 801 and 341 entries, respectively [1-3]. While the quinoa is cultivated widespread both commercially and experimentally, the kañawa is cultivated on a small-scale by farmers in both countries [4]. The grain is an achene fruit like that of the quinoa and small-sized and with a very low saponin content and a high nutritional value that surpasses that of the quinoa. Kañawa is a semi- domesticated crop, which is apparent by its grain-shattering trait (15-35%) that occurs between flowering and fruit maturity [5]. This mini-review presents the underutilized crop’s potentialities as a nutraceutical Andean grain, resilient crop, and multi-use grain for urban and rural stakeholders.

Diversity and morpho-type plants related to use by small-scale farmers

Small-scale farmers conserve and use a great plant diversity of the kañawa involving both vegetative growth-forms and grain colors. Due to its flower size-considerably smaller than the quinoa flower-classical breeding by crossing is difficult and many cultivars derive from a selection. Andean farmers use their own landraces or native varieties, and three main growth habit forms of the kañawa are known (Figure 1); the ‘Saihua (Chuqhu)’ with a prominent main stem and erect growth type (Figure 1a); the ‘Lasta (Thasa)’ denoted with multiple-branched growth habit (Figure 1a) [6]. These two growth habit forms of kañawa are cultivated in Bolivia and Peru. Nevertheless, yet is possible to find the wild kañawa type, called ‘mamakañawa’ or ‘Illamanku’ (Figure 1b), in the spaces of the plots or plots where potato is cultivated or plots in fallowing [5,6].

Figure 1: Morphological variation in semi-domesticated and wild type kañawa, where,

a. denotes ‘Lasta’ type (plans in yellow colour) and ‘Saihua’ type (plants in red colour), and

b. ‘Illamanku’, Wild type.


Benefits as food, feed, industrial and nutritional

Compared to quinoa, the kañawa grain has a higher nutritional content, mainly in amino acids, phenolic compounds, unsaturated fatty acids, mineral composition and its enzymes that enable the use of the grains as an alternative source to combat malnourishment [7,8]. Farmers toast the grain in clay-pots, and then they are ground to a flour with flat stones. The flour has an aroma very similar to vanilla, and this flour is known as ‘kañiwaco’ in Peru and ‘pito de kañawa’ in Bolivia. Kañawa grains contain vanillic acid; thus, this sweet flavour is attractive for making soft drinks while at the same time being a nutritive beverage. As seen in Table 1, the high amount of vitamin B and iron in the kañawa grains makes it recommendable to include and use the kañawa in complementary School Food programs to combat anaemia in pupils [9-11].

Table 1: Nutritional and chemical composition of kañahua and other grains.

Bold characters highlight the nutritional and chemical content of grains of kañawa. CARB; Carbohydrates; a) [15-18] ; b) [17, 19-20]


Besides, the shell (pericarp) of the grains following postharvest processing and cleaning can be offered to minor livestock as guinea pigs, locally known as cuyes, and chicken which will improve the meat quality and, also, serve to valorize the kañawa [4,12]. Starch quality studies have suggested using the kañawa seeds manufacturing biodegradable biofilms [13,14]. The diversity of kañawa could be developed into a sustainable pool of materials for sustainable, eco-friendly products [15-20].

Conclusion

Soil salinity is expanding, and it affects many parts of the world’s agro-ecological regions. The kañawa cultivated by smallscale farmers in the high-altiplano regions showed tolerance to frost and drought, and it is a main source of proteins. Ethno-varieties need to be studied for their uses, e.g., the grains have a very low saponin content and make them easy to process by toasting and flour production.

References

  1. Mamani F (2016) Cultivation of cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) for food security. Design & Impressions Flores Bolivia, Pp. 34.
  2. Mangelson H, Jarvis DE, Mollinedo P, Rollano-Penaloza OM, Palma-Encinas VD, et al. (2019) The genome of Chenopodium pallidicaule: An emerging Andean super grain. Appl Plant Sci 7(11): e11300.
  3. Bonifacio A (2019) Improvement of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and qañawa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) in the context of climate change in the high Andes. Cien Inv Agr 46(2): 113-124.
  4. Rodriguez JP, Jacobsen SE, Sørensen M, Andreasen C (2020) Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule): a promising new crop for arid areas. Emerging Research in Alternative Crops, Springer.
  5. Rodriguez JP, Aro M, Coarite M, Jacobsen SE, Sørensen M, et al. (2017) Seed shattering of cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen). J Agron Crop Sci 203(3): 254-267.
  6. Estaña W, Muñoz C (2012) Genetic variability of cañihua in the provinces of Puno. Technical team of the "Project for the improvement of technical productive capacities for the competitiveness of the andean crops of native potato, broad bean and cañihua in the puno region", Puno.
  7. Galvez L, Apostolidis E, Genovese MI, Lajolo ML, Shetty K (2009) Evaluation of indigenous grains from the Peruvian Andean Region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in vitro J Med Food 12(4): 704-713.
  8. Repo Valencia R (2020) Nutritional value and bioactive compounds in andean ancient grains. Proceedings 53(1): 1.
  9. Pisfil CA (2017) Optimization of the level of substitution of wheat flour for quinoa, cañihua and kiwicha flour in the preparation of pre-cooked panini bread. Pedro Ruiz Gallo National University, Peru.
  10. Zegarra SI (2018) Preparation of a bread suitable for celiacs based on Chenopodium pallidicaule flour and evaluation of its sensory acceptability. San Ignacio de Loyola University, Peru.
  11. Chambi FA (2019) Preparation of cup-cakes with partial substitution of wheat flour with quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus), cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) and fat substitution with linseed gums (Linum usitatissimum) and chia (Salvia hispánica). Peruvian Union University.
  12. Alcon B (2018) Effect of cañahua dust (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) on the feeding of laying birds of the Isa Brown line in the growth and pre-laying phase in the municipality of Achocalla-La Paz. University of San Andres. Peace, Bolivia.
  13. Ramirez S (2016) Starch and cane flour (Chenopodium pallidicaule): Extraction, characterization and development of biodegradable films. Master's diss, Faculty of Zootechnics and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga.
  14. Salas LM (2017) Production and characterization of biodegradable films based on pseudocereal canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule). State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP.
  15. Carrasco R, Espinoza C, Jacobsen SE (2003) Nutritional value and use of the Andean crops quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule). Food Rev Intl 19(1-2): 179-189.
  16. Gallego DY, Russo L, Kerbab K, Landi M, Rastrelli L (2014) Chemical and nutritional characterization of Chenopodium pallidicaule (cañihua) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) seeds. Emir J Food Agric 26(7): 609-615.
  17. Alvarez-Jubete L, Arendt EK, Gallagher E (2009) Nutritive value and chemical composition of pseudocereals as gluten-free ingredients. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60: 240-257.
  18. Vincent A, Grande F, Compaoré E, Amponsah A, Addy PA, et al. (2019) User guide & condensed food composition table/fao/infoods food composition table for West Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Pp. 1-556.
  19. Ruales J, Nair B (1993) Content of fat, vitamins and minerals in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) seeds. Food Chemistry 48(2): 131-136.
  20. Collazos C, White P, White H (1996) The composition of foods of greater consumption in peru. Ministry of health. National Institute of Nutrition. Lima, Peru.

© 2021 Juan Pablo Rodriguez. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.



About Crimson

We at Crimson Publishing are a group of people with a combined passion for science and research, who wants to bring to the world a unified platform where all scientific know-how is available read more...

Leave a comment

Contact Info

  • Crimson Publishers, LLC
  • 555 Madison Avenue, 5th floor
  •     New York, NY 10022, USA
  • +1 (929) 600-8049
  • +1 (929) 447-1137
  • info@crimsonpublishers.com
  • www.crimsonpublishers.com