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Approaches in Poultry, Dairy & Veterinary Sciences

Poultry Farming, A Growth-Promoting Sector to be Promoted and Supported for the Employment of Young People and Women

El Hadji Traore*

Senior Researcher at Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute (ISRA), Senegal

*Corresponding author: El Hadji Traore, Senior researcher at Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute (ISRA), Senegala

Submission: July 26, 2021;Published: September 30, 2021

DOI: 10.31031/APDV.2021.08.000692

ISSN: 2576-9162
Volume8 Issue4


The flourishing production of poultry in the world, remains less important in Africa, compared to other countries like France which produces nearly 20 billion table eggs (consumption) per year, against ten billion in Côted Ivoire; 885 million in Senegal in 2019; about 100 million for Burkina, etc. This low production explains why the consumption of poultry products remains low in Africa: 20 and 60 eggs/year in south of the Sahara African countries against 280 units/year in France, i.e., the equivalent of the annual laying of a hen or more than 300 eggs/year in Japan and Mexico, meaning nearly one egg per dia. There is therefore an existing large market and a production progress need to be achieved.

Importance of Poultry Farming in Senegal

In Senegal, the two types of poultry farming (traditional or family poultry and modern or industrial poultry) are a practice, even a way of life, the socioeconomic importance of which led the public authorities, very early (after independence) to think of taking in charge the development of poultry production, through the creation of the National Poultry Center (CNA) in 1962. Regarding intensive or modern poultry farming, the Niayes (Figure 1) constitute an area with a favorable climate (average annual temperature of 28 to 30 °C) for intensive poultry rearing. That is why Dakar is home to more than 80% industrial poultry farmers. However, this situation is threatened by urbanization and other occupations in this area. The production techniques are well mastered because there is proven technical and scientific expertise. However, the costs of inputs, especially those imported, are not under control, making the broiler market unstable, because it is constantly threatened by import competition [1-3].

Figure 1:Map of agro-ecological zones in Senegal with the location of the Niayes area suitable for intensive and semi-intensive poultry farming (map ).

Of course, since 2005, Decree No. 07717/PM of 24 November 2005 has suspended imports of poultry products, due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or avian flu. This led to a real boom in poultry production, especially broiler chickens [4,5]. The annual number of broilers increased from 3,994,800 chicks in 2004 to 11,386,100 in 2008, i.e tripled in four years. The turnover of the modern poultry sector which was 3.2 billion in 2000 and 41.9 billion in 2004 rose to 124.1 billion in 2012 and is in 2019 at 178 billion of CFA1, according to the FAO and Senegalese Ministry in charge of livestock reports. Fears of an agitated shortage after the cessation of imports did not materialize, and better still, the adaptive capacity and enormous production potential were revealed. The change in the number of day-old chicks produced in Senegal between 2010 and 2019 demonstrates the dynamism of the commercial poultry sector (Figure 2). This is a sector that is admittedly weak considering external competition, which therefore requires protection or support. But, it is a source of growth and job creator, especially for graduates and non-graduates young.

Figure 2:Evolution of day-old chick production from 2010 to 2019 (CIMEL Mbao data, MEPA).

Advantages and Constraints of Poultry Production

Senegalese intensive poultry farming has strengths such as: i) dynamic production that is growing steadily; ii) an effort and capacity to meet national demand for proven poultry products; iii) a real market, made up of national demand and that of the WAEMU2 area; iv) a favorable climate for intensive poultry farming, especially in the so-called Niayes area which offers not very high temperatures all year round; v) national technical expertise available through training centers and schools such as the Inter-State School of Veterinary Sciences and Medicine (EISMV), the National School of Agronomy (ENSA), the Higher Institute of Agricultural and Rural Training of Alioune Diop University of Bambey (UADB/ISFAR), the National Training Center for Livestock Techniques and Animal Industries (CNFTEIA), several universities, etc.

However, the sector has some weaknesses: i) the broiler sector is not very competitive because the suspensive measure set out above will sooner or later be lifted due to our trade agreements and the Senegalese broiler cannot withstand international competition ; ii) an effort to organize the actors that remains to be made, divergences still persist, even if it should be noted that efforts have been made; iii) a professionalism of the actors to be improved because, often it is the owners of the farms who are formed to the detriment of the workers and laborers really active; iv) high production shots, not very favorable to competition [6,7]. Traditional or family poultry farming is also developing. The major constraints, namely recurrent pathologies such as Newcastle disease, fowl pox, parasitism are beginning to be taken care of; habitat and food are increasingly under control. The productivity of this sector is thus improved and provides much more income, especially for women.

Foot Note

1US dollar = 500 CFA

2West African Economic and Monetary Union


Industrial or intensive poultry farming is a dynamic sector that has established itself or has been built almost on its own with private capital, often on the stakeholders’ own funds. Today, banks are starting to take an interest in the sector, this should be encouraged. The sector is at a high growth rate and creates jobs because, calling on several players. The “Laying” sector still has room for improvement and market shares to gain by installing processing units (mayonnaise, egg powder, etc.). The “broiler” sector, a very dynamic sector, is however very weak. It is necessary to organize the actors to accompany them towards a competitive production on the national and international level thanks to a policy of control of the costs of production such as feed, the components of which (corn and other cereals, fishmeal, meal, etc.) are sold to high prices. The main input maize for intensive poultry production (over 50% of the cost of production) is almost completely imported. Groundnut cake, another very important input, may be short these years, due to the high exports of groundnuts with shell. Fishmeal, just as important as meal, although locally produced, is the subject of a bidding up due to its export following external demand (neighboring countries). We need to control the production and the price of day-old chicks, the first input, by encouraging the establishment of breeding farms accompanied by hatching units (hatcheries). For traditional or family poultry farming, efforts must be made to improve health, nutrition and habitat.


  1. FAO (TRAORE EH) (2014) Poultry sector senegal. FAO animal production and health division national livestock reviews 7: 7.
  2. Ministry of Agriculture (Directorate of Livestock-Direl CNA): Statistics of the modern poultry sector from 1992 to 2005. Dakar, Senegal.
  3. Ministry of livestock and animal industries (CNA-CIMEL of Mbao) Statistics 2010 to 2019 of the modern poultry sector, Dakar, Senegal.
  4. Oxfam International (2004), Study of the economic impact of imports of whole chickens and pieces on the development of the poultry sector in Senegal. Diagne, BM Consultation report, Dakar, Senegal, p. 65.
  5. Traoré EH (2001) Poultry production system FAO project: Improvement of poultry production in traditional family farming through better management of production and animal health constraints TCP/SEN 065. Phase I: 2001-2002. Mission Report, p. 36.
  6. Traoré EH, Faye P (2004) Report on the results of pre-vaccination & post-vaccination surveys against Newcastle disease (MN). Program TCP/SEN/2904 D FAO. Improvement of poultry production in traditional family farming through better management of production and animal health constraints.
  7. Traoré EH, Sall C, Fall AA, Faye P (2006) Economic issues of avian influenza in the Senegalese poultry sector. RIDAF Bulletin 16(1).

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