Crimson Publishers Publish With Us Reprints e-Books Video articles

Full Text

Approaches in Poultry, Dairy & Veterinary Sciences

Canine Leishmaniasis in Brazil

Judiele Soares1, Mariana Caetano Teixeira2, André Pelegrini1 and Clairton Marcolongo-Pereira1*

1Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo (UNESC), Brazil

2Centro Universitário Ritter dos Reis (UniRitter), Brazil

*Corresponding author:Clairton Marcolongo- Pereira, Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo (UNESC), Colatina, ES, Brasil

Submission: July 10, 2019;Published: July 16, 2019

DOI: 10.31031/APDV.2019.06.000638

ISSN: 2576-9162
Volume6 Issue2

Abstract

Canine Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmaniainfantum and is transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies primarily between animals and secondarily to humans. In Brazil, approximately 3,500 cases of LV have been reported annually since 2002 affecting humans, with an average incidence of two cases per 100,000 inhabitants and a lethality rate of 5.5% in the last 12 years. The control of canine visceral Leishmaniasis is based on the detection of infected animals, followed by their euthanasia and in the control of the transmitting vector. Such control, however, is a difficult task due to the great variety of reservoirs of the parasite in nature.

Keywords: zoonosis; protozoa; flebuotominae; Lutzomyia longipalpis; Lutzomyia cruzi

Mini Review

Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that can infect humans when they come into contact with the parasite’s transmission cycle. It is considered an anthropozoonosis. Currently, it is among the six most important endemic diseases in the world [1]. This disease is caused by protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida, family Tripanossomatidae, genus Leishmania, species Leishmaniainfantum, that infect man and different species of wild and domestic mammals of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world [2].

The lethality rate of this disease can reach up to 100% when untreated [3]. Visceral Leishmaniasis (LV) affects around 500,000 new individuals each year, according to official data from the World Health Organization [4]. In Brazil, approximately 3,500 cases of LV have been reported annually since 2002, with an average incidence of two cases per 100,000 inhabitants and a lethality rate of 5.5% in the last 12 years [4].

The etiological agents of LV are trypanosomatid protozoa of the genus Leishmania, an obligate intracellular parasite of the cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system with a flagellate or promastigote form found in the digestive tract of the insect vector and another form or amastigote in the tissues of the vertebrate hosts [5]. The amastigote form is ovoid or spherical in shape, measuring approximately 3-6.5 μm by 1.3-3 μm. It presents nucleus, kinetoplast and rudimentary flagellum.

Vertebrate hosts may include a wide variety of animals, such as rodents, edentates, marsupials, canids and primates, including humans [5]. In urban areas, dogs (Canis familiaris) can be considered the main source of infection and responsible for maintaining the zoonotic cycle of this disease. Canine enzootia has preceded the occurrence of human cases and infection in dogs has been more prevalent than in humans [6]. In the wild, the reservoirs are foxes (Dusicyon vetulus and Cerdocyon thous) and marsupials (Didelphis albiventris).

The vectors of LV are flebuotominae, popularly known as straw mosquito or birigui [7]. source of L. (L.) chagasi in Brazil, and recently L. cruzi was considered a vector in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. In Brazil, the geographical distribution of L. longipalpis is broad and seems to be in great expansion [7].

Acknowledgment

The authors thanks the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e Inovação do Espírito Santo (FAPES) and the Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo (UNESC) for supporting this study and for the scholarship.

References

  1. World Health Organization- Who (2001) The World health report. Geneva
  2. Tasca KI, Buzetti AS, Tenorio MS, Paulan SC, Lima FL, et al (2009) Exames parasitológicos, imunoistoquimicos e histopatológicos para detecção de Leishmania chagasi em tecidos esplênicos de cães com leishmaniose visceral. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 18(1): 27-33.
  3. Sharma U, Singh S (2009) Immunobiology of leishmaniasis. Indian J Exp Biol 47: 412-423.
  4. World Health Organization (who) (2009) Leishmaniasis: the global trend. Geneva
  5. Coura JR (2005) Dinâmica das Doenças infecciosas e Parasitárias. Guanabara, São Paulo, Brasil
  6. Azevedo MA, Dias AKK, Paula HB, Perri SHV, Nunes CM (2008) Avaliação da Leishmaniose Visceral Canina em Poxoréo, estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 17(3): 123-127.
  7. Brasil MS (2006) Manual de vigilância e controle da leishmaniose visceral. Ministério da Saúde pp.120.
  8. Marcondes CB (2009) Doenças transmitidas e causadas por artrópodes. Editora Atheneu, São Paulo, Brasil pp. 557.
  9. Santa Rosa ICA, Oliveira ICS (1997) Leishmaniose Visceral: breve revisão sobre uma zoonose reemergente. Clín Vet 2(11):24-28.
  10. Gontijo CMF, Melo MN (2004) Leishmaniose Visceral no Brasil: quadro atual, desafios e perspectivas. Rev Bras Epidemiol 7(3): 338-349.
  11. Baneth G (2006) Leishmaniases. In: Greene, C.E. Infections Diseases. Canada, pp. 686-689.
  12. Bogdan C, Rollinghoff M (1998) The immune response to Leishmania: mechanisms of parasite control and evasion. Int J Parasitol 28(1): 121- 134.
  13. Feitosa MM, Ikeda FA, Luvizotto MCR, Perri SHV (2000) Aspectos clínicos de cães com leishmaniose visceral no município de Araçatuba, São Paulo. Clin Vet 5(28): 34-44
  14. Veras PST, Fraga DBM, Salcà MS, Guedes CES (2014) New advances in the diagnosis of canine visceral Leismaniasis. Leishmaniasis - In: CLABORN, D.M. Trends in Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment.
  15. Ciaramella P, Oliva G, Luna R, Gradoni L, Ambrosio R (1997) A retrospective clinical study of canine leishmaniasis in 150 dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum. Vet Record 141(21): 539-543.
  16. Blavier A, Keroack S, Denerolle PH, Goy-thollot I, Chabanne L, et al. (2001) Atypical forms of canine leishmaniosis. Vet J 162(2): 108-120.
  17. Moreira MA, Luvizotto MC, Garcia JF, Corbett CR, Laurenti MD (2007) Comparision os parasitological, immunological and molecular methods fot the diagnosis of leishmaniosis in dogs with different clinical signs. Vet Parasitol 145(Issues 3-4): 245-252.
  18. Ferrer LM (1999) Clinical aspects of canine leishmaniasis. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CANINE LEISHMANIASIS FORUM. Barcelona, Spain. Canine Leishmaniasis: an update. Wiesbaden: Hoeschst Roussel Vet pp. 6-10.
  19. Kamhawi S, Belkaid Y, Modi G, Rowton E, Sacks D (2000) Protection against cutaneous Leishmaniasis resulting fron bites of uninfected sand flies. Science 290(5495): 1351-1354.
  20. Dietze R, Barros GB, Teixeira L, Harris J, Michelson K, et al. (1997) Effect of eliminating seropositive canines on the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Clin Infect Dis 25(5): 1240-1242.
  21. Dye C (1996) The logic of visceral leishmaniasis control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55(2): 125-130.
  22. Costa CHN (2001) Mudanças no controle da leishmaniose visceral no Brasil. Rev Socied Bras Med Trop 34(2): 223-228.
  23. Domingos IH (2012) Teste Rápido TR-DPP® no contexto do diagnóstico sorológico da Leishmaniose visceral canina. Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul p. 86.

© 2019 Clairton Marcolongo-Pereira. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

About Crimson

We at Crimson Publishing are a group of people with a combined passion for science and research, who wants to bring to the world a unified platform where all scientific know-how is available read more...

Leave a comment

Contact Info

  • Crimson Publishers, LLC
  • 555 Madison Avenue, 5th floor
  •     New York, NY 10022, USA
  • +1 (929) 600-8049
  • +1 (929) 447-1137
  • info@crimsonpublishers.com
  • www.crimsonpublishers.com