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Approaches in Poultry, Dairy & Veterinary Sciences

Bioactive Properties of The Lipids of Cow Milk on Human Health

José Alberto Ariza Ortega*, Nelly del Socorro Cruz Cansino, Esther Ramírez Moreno and Luis Delgado Olivares

Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, México

*Corresponding author: José Alberto Ariza Ortega, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Área Académica de Nutrición, Carretera Actopan-Tilcuautla, Ex- Hacienda la Concepción s/n, San Agustín Tlaxiaca, Hidalgo, 42086, México

Submission: October 22, 2018;Published: November 13, 2018

DOI: 10.31031/APDV.2018.05.000610

ISSN: 2576-9162
Volume5 Issue2

Mini Review

Cow milk is an emulsion predominantly composed of water and lipids. Some lipids when they are consumed in great quantities are associated with an increase in disease risk in human beings [1]. However, many of these have neutral or positive effects on health, and the majority of the people do not know the benefits of these lipids to health and nutrition [2]. It is for this reason that the aim of this work was to review in literature concerning the health effects of lipidics components found in cow milk.

Lipids are groups of compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen, and integrate aliphatic aromatic hydrocarbon chains and due to this chemical structure, can be classified as simple, which are made up of esters of fatty acids and alcohols (triacyl glycerides); compounds, which are constituted by simple lipids and conjugated with non-lipid molecules (phospholipids, glycolipids and lipoproteins); and the associates or derivatives, which are all those that are not within the aforementioned subdivisions (free fatty acids, carotenoids, fat-soluble vitamins, cholesterol, among others) [3].

Biochemically, lipids perform structural functions in cell membranes; they are indispensable and insulators because they preserve the equilibrium of homeostasis and maintain stable temperature of organisms respectively. They are pigments and are a source of energy for the muscles, heart, liver, kidneys, blood platelets and nervous system [4].

In general, the short and medium chains fatty acids [butyric (C4:0), caproic (C6:0), caprilic (C8:0) and capric (C10:0) and lauric (C12:0), miristic (C14:0), pentadecanoic (C15:0), palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) respectively] do not pose an obesity risk. They prevent ulcerative colitis, cancer, atherosclerosis and hypertension, they have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, and they boost natural immunity. However, it has been reported that an increased amount of C12:0 decreases the relationship between total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol; while C14:0 and C16:0 affect this proportion but minimally and C18:0 reduces it lightly [5,6].

The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids [miristoleic (C14:1), palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) respectively], contribute to the prevention of coronary diseases, cancer, inflammatory, thrombotic and autoimmune diseases, as well as hypertension, type II diabetes, kidney diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease [7]. In addition, the C18:2/C18:3 ratios are considered a key factor for the balanced synthesis of eicosanoids [8-10].

On the other hand, in studies with conjugated linolenic acid in animals, trans fatty acids such as have been shown to play an important role in inhibition of carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis as well as immunostimulation [1,11]. The fat-soluble vitamins (A and E) are antioxidant, and present tumor suppressing activities. Phospholipids (sphingolipids, ceramides and sphingosines) have antibacterial properties, anticarcinogenic and immune stimulation properties [12]. The cholesterol component stabilizes and stiffens cell membranes, and moreover it protects nerve fibers and acts as a precursor of steroid hormones, bile acids and vitamin D3 [2]. However, the concentration of each of these constituents is mainly related to livestock feeding [1,2].

References

  1. Carrara ER, Gaya LG, Mourão GB (2017) Fatty acid profile in bovine milk: Its role in human health and modification by selection. Arch Zoo Tec 66(253): 151-158.
  2. Miciński J, Zwierzchowskia G, Kowalskib IM, Szarekc J, Pierozynskid B, et al. (2012) The effects of bovine milk fat on human health. Polish Annals of Medicine 19(2): 170-175.
  3. Badui S (2013) Química de los alimentos, Pearson, México, pp. 223-272.
  4. Nelson LD, Cox MM (2001) Lehninger principles of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, EUA, pp. 147-160.
  5. Lawrence GD (2013) Dietary fats and health: Dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence. Adv Nutr 4: 294-302.
  6. Orsavova J, Misurcova L, Vavra AJ, Vicha R, Mlcek J (2015) Fatty acids composition of vegetable oils and its contribution to dietary energy intake and dependence of cardiovascular mortality on dietary intake of fatty acids. Int J Mol Sci 16(6): 12871-12890.
  7. Abedi E, Sahari MA (2014) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid sources and evaluation of their nutritional and functional properties. Food Sci Nutr 2(5): 443-463.
  8. FAO/WHO (2010) Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition, Report of an expert consultation, FAO/WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  9. Markiewicz Kęszycka M, Czyżak Runowska G, Lipińska P, Wójtowski J (2013) Fatty acid profile of milk-A Review. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 57(2): 135-139.
  10. Kim H, Youn K, Yun EY, Hwang JS, Jeong WS, et al. (2015) Oleic acid a meliorates Aβ-induced inflammation by down regulation of COX-2 and INOS via NFκB signaling path way. Journal of Functional Foods 14: 1-11.
  11. Vargas Bello Pérez E, Garnsworthy PC (2013) Trans fatty acids and their role in the milk of dairy cows. Cien Inv Agr 40(3): 449-473.
  12. Dhankhar J, Sharma R, Indumathi KP (2016) Bioactive lipids in milk. International Food Research Journal 23(6): 2326-2334.

© 2018 José Alberto Ariza Ortega. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

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