Matias S Netto1*, Dison SP Franco1, Jordana Georgin2 and Guilherme L Dotto1
1Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Maria-UFSM, Santa Maria, Brazil
2Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Maria-UFSM, Santa Maria, Brazil
*Corresponding author:Matias S Netto, Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Maria-UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Submission: February 13, 2023;Published: February 17, 2023
Volume3 Issue4February , 2023
Agro-industrial waste, due to its advantage over other materials, such as its abundant disposal, renewable characteristic and low cost, has been arousing interest as an option in the production of alternative adsorbents. Adsorption is a simple process, it removes or minimizes different types of pollutants and does not require high costs, due to the low (or not) need for energy and the possibility of reusing coal through its regeneration.
Keywords: Agro-industrial waste; Adsorption; Low cost
One of the environmental problems with the greatest impact today is the solid waste issue. With the existing world population, approximately seven billion people, the work in the countryside was replaced by industrial work, causing half of this population to seek their livelihood in the big cities. By 2030 the urban population could reach five billion inhabitants, representing about 71.43% of the actual world population [1,2].
Due to population growth and increased industrial activity, environmental problems have become increasingly frequent and worrying . According to the 2016 State of World Population report, a global population of 9.3 billion is expected in 2050. Along with population growth, problems are emerging that most cities in underdeveloped countries live with, including poverty. crime and inefficient, or even non-existent, environmental sanitation .
On the other hand, in underdeveloped countries, the problem with waste is accentuated not only due to population growth but it is also helped by the disorderly occupation of land, inefficient environmental control, and lack of governmental intervention. Brazil is an example in this scenario, being one of the main generators of agro-industrial waste . According to data from the Ministry of the Environment, each year around 290.8 million tons of waste are produced in Brazil in this sector alone . The patterns of production, consumption and form of capital reproduction bring up the issue of solid waste.
The evolution of technology developed by man has caused an excessive consumption of natural resources and ends up generating a high load of waste, which end up having a direct impact on the environment .
The biggest challenge today is to find a balance between the generation of waste and its final disposal. The amount of waste produced has been growing as the world population grows and also as inadequate management is used and a lack of areas for proper final disposal . The use of renewable materials has become an accessible option for the correct allocation of waste generated by industries. This reallocation involves technological innovation, using agro-industrial residues in an alternative way.
The development of alternative adsorbents is attractive, as the national production of this type of material is insufficient for its needs, and this product has to be imported. The attraction of the consumer market is also notable, since adsorbents can be used efficiently in environmental terms in various decontamination processes, and can be used in water supply companies, pharmaceuticals, gas transport, among others [7,8]. The use of adsorbents obtained from agro-industrial waste becomes an accessible technology for environmental control, as it seeks to minimize the cost/benefit ratio of a process that employs alternative adsorbents, using lowcost raw materials .
Adsorbents formed from agro-industrial waste
The adsorbent is a material with a porous structure, with or without oxygen bound to carbon atoms . They are solids without defined forms, in the form of powder or granules, processed to develop internal porosity, increasing the pore volume, consequently the surface area . Adsorbents are obtained through a carbonization process, where the material is pyrolyzed at high temperatures.
Most carbonaceous materials have some porosity and high surface area . Thus, the porosity of the adsorbent will depend on its precursor material and the activation method used, which can be physical or chemical activation. However, some materials can generate adsorbents with relatively high efficiency (greater than 90%) without the need for activation, reducing costs with reagents, energy and equipment . In this context, adsorbents, due to their surface area and adsorption capacity, have great applicability for removing contaminants. Figure 1 shows a list of residues used in the literature for the removal of emerging pollutants.
Figure 1:Illustrates the diversity of waste applied in the adsorption of different pollutants.
In this context, the use of agro-industrial residues becomes an efficient alternative for the production of alternative adsorbents, promoting the conversion of an agro-industrial residue into a lowcost and considered effective adsorbent.<
Paper colorimetric detectors can be used for testing different PDMS membranes to select the best one for the IMS instrument. We want to select a thin membrane, relatively strong due to the presence of mechanical support and modified with PEO or PPO derivatives rapidly reacting to the CWA simulants action in the gas phase.
© 2023 Matias S Netto. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.